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Almost anyone can perform your medical laboratory tests – wait, what? Almost anyone can perform your medical laboratory tests – wait, what? Your barber, realtor, electrician and massage therapist are all licensed, but only 12 states in the US license medical laboratorians By Rodney E.Ellis, MSPosted on 10 March 2015 Share story:The authors of this article have been lobbying the Texas Legislature to pass bills that would require medical laboratory professionals to be licensed to work in the state Ph.D., M.D./D.O., or equivalent terminal degree in the biomedical sciences; Evidence of substantial formal training in human anatomy. Preferred Academic appointment, laboratory space and start-up will be made based upon the candidate's background, experience and prior record of success. Located in the heart of .Ellis, MSPosted on 10 March 2015 Share story:The authors of this article have been lobbying the Texas Legislature to pass bills that would require medical laboratory professionals to be licensed to work in the state.Rohde is Professor and Chair of the Clinical Laboratory Science program at Texas State University and incoming President of the Texas Association for Clinical Laboratory Science (TACLS).
David Falleur is Associate Professor at Texas State and serves on the TACLS Government Affairs Committee, which has started a petition for licensure in Texas.Ellis is Clinical Assistant Professor at Texas State University and outgoing President of TACLS.Here, they write about the issue and why they think licensure should be mandatory.divider When your doctor orders lab tests, are they performed and analyzed by licensed medical laboratorians? If you live in the United States, chances are the answer is no.
Medical laboratory scientists (MLS) and medical laboratory technicians (MLT) are licensed in just 12 states.State governments grant licenses in hundreds of other professions.In 2003, the Council of State Governments estimated that more than 800 occupations were licensed in one or more states.Among the healthcare occupations and professions licensed by states are physicians, physician assistants, dentists, nurses, midwives, respiratory care professionals, radiologic technicians, chiropractors, physical therapists, and pharmacists.Among the non-healthcare related occupations licensed by the states are plumbers, painters, general contractors, school bus drivers, barbers, bartenders, dogcatchers, cosmetologists, septic system installers and insurance agents.
MLS and MLT professionals provide up to 70 percent of objective patient information to physicians so they can provide an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan, according to a 2002 study in Patient history along with physical signs and symptoms are vital, but most diagnoses need confirmation that only laboratory tests can provide.The laboratory professionals also contribute to wellness testing, guiding treatment and monitoring patient progress.It is not an overstatement to say that our professionals provide critical lifesaving information many times over the course of a work day: for example, complex testing to cross-match your blood for emergency surgery, to identify a genetic abnormality of a newborn, or to assist in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and cancers like Hodgkin’s disease.Most people believe that their doctor performs these tests like we see on TV shows like House or Grey’s Anatomy.In fact, you would probably not want your personal physician to do your lab tests because the specialized skills required are not an integral part of the medical school curriculum.
Formal coursework training in medical laboratory testing comprises a small portion of the curriculum for most health care professionals.However, for MLS and MLT students, medical laboratory theory for all 1,000+ available lab tests, sources of interference, and connections between test results and diagnoses is the main focus of their studies.And yet, our profession is not licensed in most states! The case for licensure A case for licensing medical laboratory professionals can be made for any state.In Texas, we have focused on the following issues: Medical laboratory education Quality and safety Medical laboratory education: as demand rises, funding drops Medical Laboratory Education programs are essential for ensuring that qualified individuals graduate each year to keep up with the demand.As the baby boomers retire, the demand will continue to increase.
Texas has 14 accredited bachelor-level Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) programs and 20 accredited associate-level Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) programs.We have more accredited programs than the similarly sized states of California and Florida.Some states need licensure to assist in the promotion of the profession and implementation of new MLS or MLT programs.Licensure would provide information about the number of laboratory professionals in the state and where the need for educational programs is most profound.Texas has the infrastructure to educate adequate numbers of qualified laboratorians; however, some of these programs are in jeopardy.
Funding is always an issue for educational programs.Recently, the MLS program at the University of Texas Southwestern was closed due to lack of funding.Licensure bills can be written so that funds will be generated for Medical Laboratory Education.
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Programs in jeopardy including those in rural or underserved areas would be able to apply for funds that could save the educational programs that train individuals in these areas.It is important to understand that licensure not only ensures minimum educational standards, but has the potential to increase revenue for states to fund access to continuing education or give assistance to struggling education programs.
A growing shortage of healthcare professionals leads to laxer hiring requirements Nationally, there are approximately 2,600 MLS and 2,300 MLT students graduating each year, creating a total of 4,900 new personnel to fill over 9,100 job openings – resulting in a 46% vacancy rate Piled Higher and Deeper PHD Comics.A growing shortage of healthcare professionals leads to laxer hiring requirements Nationally, there are approximately 2,600 MLS and 2,300 MLT students graduating each year, creating a total of 4,900 new personnel to fill over 9,100 job openings – resulting in a 46% vacancy rate.
In Texas, there are about 225 MLS graduates and 200 MLT graduates to fill 985 jobs, leaving 57 percent of the jobs unfilled.(Carden, et al: “An examination of the supply and demand for clinical laboratory professionals in the United States,” Transfusion, 2009) To address growing concerns about the shortages of health professionals across the state, the Statewide Health Coordinating Council (SHCC) created the report 2011-2016 Texas State Health Plan: A Roadmap to a Healthy Texas.Pages 89-90 address licensure of laboratory professionals: Clinical Laboratory Sciences is one of the few health professions that is not licensed in Texas.Although national certification is available, in non-licensure states, there is no requirement for employers to hire certified personnel nbd-dhofar.com/homework/where-to-purchase-an-engineering-homework-one-hour-double-spaced-cse-quality.
Although national certification is available, in non-licensure states, there is no requirement for employers to hire certified personnel.
In states such as Texas, federal regulation by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) of 1988 permit laboratories to hire high school graduates to perform moderately complex tests.A very lax standard indeed, considering the critical role of laboratory testing in diagnosis and treatment of patients.When there is a shortage of personnel, it is more likely that lower level, uneducated individuals will be hired if there is no provision for requiring a specific level/standard to be met through licensure.Many states are now licensing laboratorians (or considering it) to ensure quality laboratory work.The American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASCP) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) have both come forward in support of licensure.
In recent years, state legislation and appropriations to improve recruitment and retention of health professions students has targeted nursing and licensed health professions.Students of clinical laboratory science cannot benefit from these programs, as they prepare for an unlicensed profession.Finally because of the absence of licensure, the state has never been able to accurately determine the number of laboratory personnel, therefore unable to even plan on addressing any personnel shortages.The council made these recommendations to assist the governor and the Texas Legislature in creating a plan to ensure quality healthcare throughout Texas.Falsified credentials The word “regulation” gives the misconception that there will be red tape associated with hiring laboratorians in a licensure state.
In 2013, the Austin American Statesman reported that Lakeway Hospital in Texas has been plagued with laboratory deficiencies resulting in poor patient care, laboratory department closures, fines from the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, and other costs to the hospital.Laboratory professional credentials were falsified during the opening of the hospital laboratory.The consequences of the hiring of unqualified personnel were massive.This turned into a human resources and public relations nightmare for the hospital, which could have been avoided if licensure were required.
Through the licensing process, credentials are verified by the state.
Employers have an excellent resource when searching for qualified personnel.In general licensure assists rather than subverts employer access to in-state or out-of-state nationally certified laboratorians.Ultimately, it allows for the state to “track” laboratory professionals.Federal regulation through CLIA is not enough CLIA regulations are minimal, yet 11 labs in Texas were closed in 2011 as a result of continued deficiencies.There is a problem with laboratory quality in Texas as well as in many other states.
You can see the CLIA deficiencies in your state by visiting the CMS Laboratory Registry.CLIA regulations and CLIA enforcement alone are not sufficient to ensure quality laboratory medicine as suggested by the SHCC above.Importantly, CLIA’s personnel standards only address the minimal requirements.In Texas, we agree with ASCLS and ASCP that these are insufficient to fully protect patient and public health.As noted by ASCP, CLIA requires only an Associate degree and minimal laboratory training to perform tests of high complexity.
In the current environment of laboratory testing, the complexity of new test requirements, especially for genetic and molecular testing, is increasing and renders these standards insufficient.
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State licensure laws can and should provide higher standards.The adoption of higher standards will ensure that patient and public health are better protected.Quality, safety and the risk of misdiagnosis Last year, a Texas Tribune article titled “Health Officials: Immigrant Surge is a Medical Crisis” stated that officials from the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) “reported that conditions at (border detention centers) posed a high risk for infectious disease outbreaks Almost anyone can perform your medical laboratory tests wait what.Quality, safety and the risk of misdiagnosis Last year, a Texas Tribune article titled “Health Officials: Immigrant Surge is a Medical Crisis” stated that officials from the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) “reported that conditions at (border detention centers) posed a high risk for infectious disease outbreaks.
”The article also reported that physicians in border areas said immigrants released from detention “primarily mothers and children are coming out in rough shape.
” In this very area, four pediatric clinic laboratories were shut down by CLIA in 2012 alone Almost anyone can perform your medical laboratory tests – wait, what? Your barber, realtor, electrician and massage therapist are all licensed, but only 12 states in the US license medical laboratorians. By Rodney E. Rohde, PhD, David M. Falleur, MEd, and Joanna R. Ellis, MS Posted on 10 March 2015. Print Friendly and .” In this very area, four pediatric clinic laboratories were shut down by CLIA in 2012 alone.This means that for two to three years, children in Weslaco, Donna, Mercedes and Edinburg potentially received erroneous lab results before those labs were finally closed Almost anyone can perform your medical laboratory tests – wait, what? Your barber, realtor, electrician and massage therapist are all licensed, but only 12 states in the US license medical laboratorians. By Rodney E. Rohde, PhD, David M. Falleur, MEd, and Joanna R. Ellis, MS Posted on 10 March 2015. Print Friendly and .This means that for two to three years, children in Weslaco, Donna, Mercedes and Edinburg potentially received erroneous lab results before those labs were finally closed.Certification There are two types of occupational regulation: licensure and certification.The two terms are often confused with each other but they are not interchangeable.
Certification by governmental entities is also sometimes confused with certification by nongovernmental (private) organizations.The components of licensure vary from state to state but usually include an annual or bi-annual licensing fee, a provision for continuing education, a minimum education and professional competency requirements.Certification is utilized by every state that licenses laboratory personnel to assess the initial competency of licensure candidates.In the American Society for Clinical Pathology’s (ASCP) Policy Statement on Licensure of Laboratory Personnel (Policy Number 05-02), certification is defined as being a less restrictive form of occupational regulation than licensure.Health care personnel can be certified without being “licensed,” as is the case with many clinical laboratory personnel.
Licensure is the most well-known type of occupational regulation.Licensure refers to the right bestowed by a governmental agency or entity to engage in a legally defined occupational scope of practice.Licensure can address the maintenance of a licensee’s skill through continuing education and/or competency requirements.It can also “provide a universal benchmark for entry-level personnel.” It is clear that laboratory operations, including testing, have a major role in assessing and managing patient health; nevertheless, most states, like Texas, do not license laboratory practitioners.
The mandatory hiring of certified laboratory personnel would have ensured that individuals with adequate training were doing that lab testing.CLIA only requires a high school diploma to perform moderately complex testing such as performing blood types on patients needing blood transfusions, drug screens and complete blood counts with a microscopic white blood cell differential.These individuals are not trained to catch leukemia cells on a blood smear.These are life-altering services that must be correct.With children, misdiagnosis can lead to advanced disease progression and in some cases increased transmission rates, more hospital admissions, longer hospital stays, increased healthcare costs and an overall negative impact on public health.
The Star Telegram reported that a Southlake emergency clinic was closed in 2011 due to uncertified personnel repeatedly failing proficiency testing.These issues occur throughout the nation and can be largely avoided if licensure were imposed in all states.Rapid, accurate laboratory testing decreases healthcare costs.Important, and often critical, medical decisions are made based on the results of laboratory tests.Inaccurate tests lead to unnecessary treatments and reduce patient confidence.
Simply put, patients get treated correctly and more quickly with accurate laboratory tests.In turn, patients are released from hospitals faster, and patients treated outside the hospital require less costly treatment.Inaccurate tests are a particular concern for vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly.In our global world, emerging and reemerging diseases are arriving at our doorstep more than ever.Clinical laboratories and qualified, licensed personnel are needed as with the recent and ongoing Ebola outbreak, measles and healthcare associated infections such as MRSA and Clostridium difficile (C.
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We play a vital role in potential bioterrorism and pandemic (influenza) threats from influenza and other infectious diseases.While most hospitals and clinics in the US can be trusted to hire appropriately educated and certified laboratory professionals, there is a concern that medical laboratories are beginning to hire non-certified workers in response to a growing shortage of qualified laboratory personnel.This issue is about public safety, quality health care and increased health care cost The graduate program is directed toward students who plan to pursue either the Master of Science (MS) degree or the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree. The Master of Science in anatomy is an academic degree awarded for the satisfactory completion of a program of study that includes both didactic coursework and .
This issue is about public safety, quality health care and increased health care cost.
There is no guarantee that your medical laboratory tests are being performed by qualified personnel.
A lack of licensing denies access to scholarships and other funding provided for other higher education students, such as for the nursing shortages that are very similar to our own Scientific Reports is an online multidisciplinary, open access journal from the publishers of Nature..A lack of licensing denies access to scholarships and other funding provided for other higher education students, such as for the nursing shortages that are very similar to our own.Overcoming opposition in other states States societies of the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) in Minnesota, Massachusetts and Missouri, as well as Texas, are actively pursuing licensure but have met with opposition Scientific Reports is an online multidisciplinary, open access journal from the publishers of Nature..Overcoming opposition in other states States societies of the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) in Minnesota, Massachusetts and Missouri, as well as Texas, are actively pursuing licensure but have met with opposition.The opposition claims that licensure will increase costs for labs, make it harder to hire out-of-state personnel, and increase the shortage.The Texas Government Affairs Committee and other states have provided research that dispels those myths nbd-dhofar.com/term-paper/best-websites-to-get-a-constitutional-law-term-paper-custom-writing-20-days-platinum.The Texas Government Affairs Committee and other states have provided research that dispels those myths.These states have made changes to their bills to satisfy virtually all of the opposition’s requests.
For example, they have assured all concerned that individuals currently employed will be “grandfathered in” and that the pay for licensed laboratorians would not be higher, according to the experience in licensed states with similar demographics.They have listened to the oppositions’ concerns, acknowledged good suggestions, and changed the bill to reflect a solid compromise.Implementation will cost the state during the months prior to license fee collection; however, licensure bills can be written to ultimately increase revenue for the state through the collection of licensure fees.The long-range benefits for this short term investment require foresight from the legislature.Rohde's background is in public health and clinical microbiology, and his PhD dissertation at Texas State was aligned with his clinical background: MRSA knowledge, learning and adaptation.His research focuses on adult education and public health microbiology with respect to rabies virology, oral rabies wildlife vaccination, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and molecular diagnostics/biotechnology.He has published over 40 research articles, book chapters and abstracts and presented at more than 100 international, national and state conferences.He was awarded the 2012 Distinguished Author Award and the 2014 and 2007 ASCLS Scientific Research Award for his work with rabies and MRSA, respectively.Rohde is incoming Texas Association for Clinical Laboratory Science (TACLS) President and has been involved in licensure efforts in Texas since 2007.David Falleur is an Associate Professor in the Clinical Laboratory Science Program at Texas State University.David is Past President of TACLS and has been actively involved in licensure efforts in Texas since 2007.Falleur has also been an ardent supporter of government affairs at the national level with ASCLS for many years and provides leadership and mentoring to his colleagues and students.Joanna Ellis graduated from the Texas State University CLS Program in 2007, obtained her MS from Johns Hopkins, and worked as a generalist at Dell Children’s Center of Central Texas.She began teaching in 2010 in the Medical Laboratory Technology Program at Austin Community College.In January of 2014, Joanna returned to her alma mater as a Clinical Assistant Professor in the CLS department at Texas State University.Joanna was elected Student Forum Chair of TACLS and ASCLS Region VII Student Forum Representative in 2007.
She continued her professional involvement by serving as the TACLS New Professional Board Member and then Board Member at Large.She has been the Membership Committee Chair 2007-2010, served on two Convention committees, then served as Chair of TACLS 2013 Weird Science Annual Meeting in Austin.Joanna was also accepted to the ASCLS Leadership Academy 2012-2013.She has been active in the 2013 Licensure for Lab Professionals initiative through website creation, licensure petition designer, Texas Licensure Facebook page creator, testifying at the Sunset Commission hearing, and many visits to individual legislators.Department of Academic Relations American Anthropological Association In 1950, 22 anthropology PhDs were awarded in America.
In 1974, 409 anthropology doctorates were awarded, and PhD production exceeded 400 for the first time.During the last 20 years, PhD production has held remarkably stable--at 400 per annum--ranging from 445 in 1976 to 360 in 1982 (mean = 396); the figure for 1995 is 464.From 1948 to 1994, 10,659 anthropology doctorates have been awarded by North American universities listed in the Association's AAA Guide.
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Recognizing the need for longitudinal data about anthropology PhDs, the American Anthropological Association began, in 1982, a series of biennial surveys.
In 1995, questionnaires were sent to 300 1994-95 anthropology PhDs for whom mailing addresses were provided by departments.A total of 151 usable questionnaires was received, for a return rate of 50% (1990 = 68%; 1988 = 67%; 1986 = 65%; 1984 = 74%; 1982 = 41%) 2017 Anatomy Graduate Program Handbook Penn State College of nbsp.A total of 151 usable questionnaires was received, for a return rate of 50% (1990 = 68%; 1988 = 67%; 1986 = 65%; 1984 = 74%; 1982 = 41%).
(Note: In 1992, the Association's Washington, DC, headquarters restructured its internal departments, moved to a new location in Arlington, Virginia, and installed a computer network with entirely new software; the PhD Survey was not completed in 1992.With the 1995 Survey of Anthropology PhDs, the Association resumes its biennial survey schedule.) Quantitative Summary and Analysis Modal PhD Who can do a lab report anatomy without plagiarism Freshman Standard American single spaced.
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The modal 1994-95 PhD recipient (based on arithmetic means, medians and modes) is "Christine," a white, 40 year-old female who found academic employment in a U.Christine's doctorate in sociocultural anthropology was based on fieldwork in North America on a non-applied topic; she took 8.At time of degree, the youngest PhD recipient in Christine's cohort was 27 years old, and the oldest was 75.To date in the 1990s, the 400 PhDs awarded each year in American anthropology represent about 0.9% of the total number of doctorates awarded in all fields (anthropology MAs = 0.Rates of PhD production in each of anthropology's traditional subfields have been relatively stable since the mid-1970s (Figure 1).For the past 20 years, cultural anthropology accounted for an average 50% of new PhDs awarded in the U.; archaeology = 30%; biological/physical = 10%; linguistic anthropology = 3%; applied/other = 7%.
The figures for 1994-95 are, respectively, 52%, 24%, 10%, 1% and 12%.( Note: Fewer practicing anthropologists receive specific training in applied anthropology itself than in sociocultural.Today cultural anthropology offers its doctoral students an array of competing theoretical approaches.In their dissertations, PhD candidates may emphasize aspects of one or more of the following viewpoints: (1) science (i.
, they test a hypothesis; use replicable observation techniques and formal methodologies; and may be anti-subjective), (2) advocacy (i., further a political agenda; champion health-care, pursue economic parity, redress past wrongs; may value subjects over science), (3) interpretive (i., study the interplay between data and observer; prefer to speculate rather than replicate; may deny that objective meanings exist) and (4) postmodern (i., write ethnography as biography; emphasize written texts; prefer subjectivity to science; may be anti-objective).There has been little synthesis among the four views.Recent dissertations include "Temples, Tourists and the Politics of Exclusion: The Articulation of Sacred Space at the Hindu Pilgrimage Center of Pushkar, India" (Christina Joseph); "Heeni Wharemaru: Her Story, the Personal Chronicle of a Maori Woman" (Mary Kay Duffie); and "Images of Culture: Being Herero in a Liberal Democracy" (Deborah Durham).
Doctoral candidates in archaeology are in a synthesizing mode.Drawing on previous archaeological field studies, they also use cultural, physical and linguistic anthropology to understand political development, trade, land use, nutrition, and migration routes within larger regions of study than the single site.Ethnoarchaeology, historical archaeology, Old World archaeology and the rise and fall of New World civilizations (e.High-tech instrumentation, remote sensing and sophisticated imaging software add energy and excitement to the subfield.Dissertations include "The Archaic Settlement System of the Middle Green River Valley, Kentucky" (Christine Kay Hensley); "Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence Adaptation in the Saginaw Valley, Michigan" (Kathryn Egan); and "Pottery Economics: A Kalinga Ethnoarchaeological Study" (Miriam Stark).Doctoral research in physical anthropology includes biomolecular data-gathering, toward an evolutionary synthesis with paleoanthropology.
The latter itself benefits from high-tech instrumentation, including thermoluminescence (TL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and 2-D/3-D computed-tomography (CT).Research proceeds on early hominid and hominoid taxonomy, New World Paleoindians, primate social behavior and the biology of aging.Paleoanthropology is more holistic, and has become an experimental science based on actualistic studies, microwear analysis and tool replication.
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Dissertations include "The Phylogeny of New World Monkeys Assessed by High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Protein Electrophoresis" (Charlene Dickinson); "Social Organization and Reproductive Strategies in a Wild Population of Common Marmosets" (Leslie Digby); and "Amino Acid Residue Analysis of Type 1 Collagen in Human Hard Tissue: An Assessment of Cribra Orbitalia in an Ancient Skeletal Sample from Tomb 31, Site 31/435-D5-2, Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt" (Scott Fairgrieve).Doctoral research in linguistic anthropology emphasizes the centrality of speech in human culture.Passage of the Native American Language Act of 1990 increased the study of endangered languages (and their role in understanding the peopling of the Americas) Help me write lab report anatomy College Senior Premium double spaced American.Passage of the Native American Language Act of 1990 increased the study of endangered languages (and their role in understanding the peopling of the Americas).
Linguistic anthropology holds great potential for studying the multilingual, multicultural world.Recent dissertations include "Memory, Identity and Politics in Armenia" (Nora Dudwick); "The Citizen Factory: Labor and Identity in Bolivian Rural Teacher Education" (Aurolyn Luykx); and "Jump! Jump an Play yuh Mas" (Patricia Alley-Dettmers) The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine According to Best of the Web 1994 -- Navigators, The best navigation service should make it easy to find almost anything on the Web (once all the data is One important variation is to only add the damping factor d to a single page, or a group of pages..Recent dissertations include "Memory, Identity and Politics in Armenia" (Nora Dudwick); "The Citizen Factory: Labor and Identity in Bolivian Rural Teacher Education" (Aurolyn Luykx); and "Jump! Jump an Play yuh Mas" (Patricia Alley-Dettmers).In the 1990s, applied anthropology is a growth industry The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine According to Best of the Web 1994 -- Navigators, The best navigation service should make it easy to find almost anything on the Web (once all the data is One important variation is to only add the damping factor d to a single page, or a group of pages..In the 1990s, applied anthropology is a growth industry.Dissertation research is conducted in all quarters of the world, and by practitioners in all four subfields.Scientific paradigms predominate over interpretive or postmodern approaches; the latter may be less workable in applied's "real world" of quantification and objective data gathering.Recent topics include studies of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other social-change agencies; finding ways to build local-level knowledge into models of social change; and research on specific biomedical problems, such as AIDS, in Third- and Fourth-World nations.Dissertations include "From Making a Living to Making Money: Domestic Economy, Capital, and Family Farming in the Venezuelan Andes" (Russell Rhoads); "Women's Narratives: Living with HIV Disease" (Patricia Salmon); and "The Impact of State Legislation on Retirement Housing Management: Issues of Legitimacy" (Judith Scherer).
Graduate Enrollments In 1995, graduate enrollments in U.anthropology programs (the mean for selected sample of departments) increased 7% over 1993, and 27% over 1989.According to the Association's 1994 Survey of Departments (see AAA Guide 1994-95), graduate enrollments in MA and PhD programs have remained relatively constant since 1975.
The age of doctoral recipients in anthropology has steadily increased from 34 years in 1973 to 39 in 1990; the average age at graduation for 1994-95's cohort is 40.Older age is due, in part, to fewer fellowship opportunities (see below,
These figures compare to six years for engineers (the shortest time to completion), 7-8 for social scientists, and 8 years for humanists (the longest time to completion, reported in the National Research Council's Summary Report 1992: Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities).The longer time required for an anthropology doctorate is due, in part, to learning exotic field languages and/or completing a 12- to 30-month field study far from home.
Ethnic Identity Minority representation in anthropology-PhD cohorts increased from 13% in 1990 to 16% in 1995.Meanwhile, the percentage of white anthropology PhDs decreased from 96% in 1972 to 84% in 1995.PhD degrees conferred, by racial and ethnic group, in 1991-92, are as follows: American Indian = 0%; Asian = 5%; Black = 4%; Hispanic = 3%; White = 87%; data source: U.
Department of Education reported in Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac Issue, September 1, 1994, p.) As stated in the National Research Council's Summary Report 1992: Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities, "Just over 10 percent of all PhDs awarded to U.citizens in 1992 were earned by racial/ethnic minorities--Asians, blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans" (p.Most minority PhDs are in cultural anthropology.Representation in the subfields, computed for the 1994-95 PhD cohort, is as follows: archaeology = 0%; sociocultural = 74%; biological/physical = 4%; linguistic anthropology = 4%; applied/other = 17%.( Note: based on small numbers, these percentages are imprecise.
) Sex Women anthropology-PhDs increased from 32% of the 1972 cohort to 59% of the 1995 PhD cohort (breakdown: sociocultural = 64% female, archaeology = 43% female, physical = 54% female, linguistics = 100% female, applied/other = 65% female).The Association's 1994 Survey of Departments (see AAA Guide 1994-95) reported that since 1988-89, women gained two percentage points toward parity in the full-time faculty (all ranks combined = 30%), and attained record levels in the ranks of full and associate professor.In 1994-95 the figure increased by two percentage points (all ranks combined = 32% breakdown: in BA departments = 36%; MA = 34%; PhD = 31% ).As a percentage of their own sex, women anthropologists are more uniformly sorted into grades (professor = 35%; associate = 31%; assistant = 31% instructor = 3% ) than male colleagues, who are bunched together at the full-professor level (55%; associate = 26%; assistant = 17% instructor = 2% ).Although parity between the sexes has been attained at the assistant-professor level (women = 54% in 1994-95 breakdown: in BA departments = 49%; MA = 55%; PhD = 55% ), as a category, the latter accounts for only 18% of the full-time anthropology faculty in America in 1994-95 (breakdown: in BA departments = 23%; MA = 16%; PhD = 17%).
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Funding patterns for doctoral classroom training in anthropology have changed since 1972, with federal monies accounting for a smaller slice of the pie.We asked 1994-95 PhDs to indicate their major source of financial support for graduate training excluding fieldwork.Federal sources (fellowships, traineeships, grants, loans and "other") accounted for 16% (1972 = 39%, 1977 = 36%, 1982 = 19%, 1984 = 20%, 1986 = 18%, 1988 = 16%, 1990 = 19%) Where to order anatomy lab report American 27 pages / 7425 words Platinum College Senior.Federal sources (fellowships, traineeships, grants, loans and "other") accounted for 16% (1972 = 39%, 1977 = 36%, 1982 = 19%, 1984 = 20%, 1986 = 18%, 1988 = 16%, 1990 = 19%).
Nonfederal sources (university or foundation fellowships and grants, teaching and research assistantships) accounted for 56% (1972 = 27%, 1977 = 33%, 1982 = 48%, 1984 = 49%, 1986 = 46%, 1988 = 38%, 1990 = 41%).
And personal sources (savings, family loans or gifts and personal employment) accounted for 27% (1972 = 32%, 1977 = 32%, 1982 = 36%, 1984 = 30%, 1986 = 35%, 1988 = 36%, 1990 = 42%).Funding patterns for doctoral field research in anthropology have remained relatively stable since 1972.We asked 1994-95 PhDs to indicate their major source of financial support for doctoral field research nbd-dhofar.com/research-paper/where-to-get-a-college-writing-help-public-relations-research-paper-undergrad-yrs-1-2-british-us-letter-size.We asked 1994-95 PhDs to indicate their major source of financial support for doctoral field research.Federal sources (fellowships, traineeships, grants, loans and "other") accounted for 23% (1972 = 51%, 1977 = 44%, 1982 = 36%, 1984 = 33%, 1986 = 29%, 1988 = 17%, 1990 = 44%) nbd-dhofar.com/research-paper/where-to-get-a-college-writing-help-public-relations-research-paper-undergrad-yrs-1-2-british-us-letter-size.
Federal sources (fellowships, traineeships, grants, loans and "other") accounted for 23% (1972 = 51%, 1977 = 44%, 1982 = 36%, 1984 = 33%, 1986 = 29%, 1988 = 17%, 1990 = 44%).
Nonfederal sources (university or foundation fellowships and grants, teaching and research assistantships) accounted for 41% (1972 = 21%, 1977 = 24%, 1982 = 35%, 1984 = 35%, 1986 = 35%, 1988 = 41%, 1990 = 34%).And personal sources (savings, family loans or gifts and personal employment) accounted for 29% (1972 = 26%, 1977 = 31%, 1982 = 32%, 1984 = 32%, 1986 = 36%, 1988 = 32%, 1990 = 29%).Careers A doctorate is recommended for full professional status as an anthropologist, although work in museums, physical-anthropology labs and field-archaeology is often possible with a master's degree.There are more nonacademic career opportunities available to PhD anthropologists, currently, than there are jobs in the academy itself.Increasingly, PhD students begin their training with academic as well as nonacademic careers in mind, and seek admission to programs which have some applied anthropologists on board.
In their planning, PhD departments may be advised to hire applied anthropologists, both to meet changing student expectations and to bolster the department's official mission on campus.In the early 1970s, 74% of PhDs took jobs in academic departments of anthropology (13% took jobs in research centers and other academic departments; 13% took nonacademic jobs; Figure 4).From the mid-1970s through 1990, the percent taking jobs in anthropology departments dropped to 38% (21% took jobs in research centers and other academic departments; 41% took nonacademic jobs).
In the 1994-95 PhD cohort, 42% took jobs in anthropology departments, 29% took jobs in research centers and other academic departments; 28% took nonacademic jobs ( note: many jobs in research centers are "nonacademic" as well--i.
, do not award tenure--bringing the overall applied figure close to 50%; Figure 4).Academic settings include departments of anthropology (joint and separate), non-anthropology departments (e., linguistics, anatomy, women's studies, fisheries), campus ethnic centers (e., African-American studies, Latino studies), campus area studies (e., Pacific studies, Mexican studies, Latin American studies), campus research institutes (demography centers, survey research institutes, archaeology centers) and campus museums.
Of those 1994-95 PhDs who are academically employed, 6% are tenured, 30% are on a tenure track and 63%--almost two-thirds--are not on a tenure track.Comparable figures for "not on tenure-track" for 1986 = 61%, 1988 = 66% and 1990 = 49%.Since 1982, recent PhDs have consistently rated the job-hunting assistance they received from departmental advisers as "poor.
" For 1994-95's PhD cohort, the ratings are much the same (poor = 42%; fair = 25%; good = 19%; very good = 8%; excellent = 5%).Through the 1980s, "excellent/very good" averaged 16%; 1995's figure is 13%.Thus, in planning for the future, PhD departments may consider offering tutorials on careers and job-hunting techniques, for applied as well as academic.( Note: To probe beneath the statistics, see below under Mentoring.One measure of the academic job market is the number of position-open ads listed in the Anthropology Newsletter.The AN carries well over 90% of all academic jobs available in U.In 1994, only 215 positions were listed: half as many jobs as new PhDs available to fill them (1993 = 353; 1992 = 310; 1991 = 387; 1990 = 350; 1989 = 473; 1988 = 423; 1987 = 318; 1986 = 242; 1985 = 247).
Departments of anthropology at institutions of higher learning currently employ the largest proportion of anthropology PhDs; however, far fewer recent graduates are so employed, compared to the earlier cohorts.
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Presently, there is no discernible ceiling or cap--like that prevailing in the tightened academic job market (Figure 5)--for PhD anthropologists targeting the nonacademic realm for employment.With its focus on internationalism, information and research, it would seem that the economy of the 1990s could absorb more anthropologists than the average 400 PhDs produced annually in the U.( Note: The diversity of professional-level jobs currently available to anthropology PhDs is evident in the Association's NAPA Directory of Practicing Anthropologists , available from AAA 22 Oct 2017 - Buy Dissertation Proposal Online - Best in UK, Buy Physics Lab Report. Notice: Undefined index: testpage in /home/victorbr/sites/broderi-moderne.dk/wp-blog-header.php on line 14 Mca assignment help phd research proposal format do the right thing essay analysis doc project manager resume..( Note: The diversity of professional-level jobs currently available to anthropology PhDs is evident in the Association's NAPA Directory of Practicing Anthropologists , available from AAA.
As in previous cohorts, the most successful job-hunting technique--accounting for 34% of all positions obtained by 1994-95 graduates--was "hearing of an opening through friends and contacts., without any foreknowledge of opening; 17%), and answering ads in the Anthropology Newsletter (15%) were the next-most-cited means of finding a job.( Note: The AN has averaged 10% since 1972; 1995's 15% is a new high.) Additional methods used by the 1994-95 cohort included departmental job bulletins (3%), other help-wanted ads (10%), AAA annual meeting (1%) and employment agency (0%) ("other" = 19%).Since 1972, use of employment agencies has averaged less than 1%; AAA annual meeting has averaged 3%.Salary Figures Average academic salaries for PhD anthropologists range from $34,000-$64,000, for the 9- to 10-month school year.
Salaries outside the academy are higher, with greater variation.Many anthropologists work in nonprofit organizations, where salaries for positions held by PhDs range from $42,000 to $95,000, for the regular 11-12 month year.(Salaries for research directors in the for-profit realm are the highest and most variable of all; average figures are unavailable.Since 1974, anthropology PhD production has stabilized at plus-or-minus 400 per year.
At present, 93 academic anthropology departments in the U.Based on present and likely future trends, there is little reason to assume a substantial increase in anthropology-PhD production over the next several years, either in greater output from existing departments or from creating new doctoral departments.
Assuming 400 new PhDs are produced per year indefinitely, what might American anthropology look like in 30 years? To boldly guess this far ahead one might also assume (1) a retirement age of 65, (2) a lifespan of 76 years and (3) a mean age of 36 at time of degree.Thus the average career "shelf life" of a PhD anthropologist today is about 30 years (and less for recent PhD cohorts).By the year 1995, approximately 11,000 men and women (representing 0.population) had received a doctorate in anthropology.By the year 2025--using the assumptions noted above--straight-line forecasting yields a grand total of 12,000 U.-awarded anthropology PhDs--1,000 more than today.
If the value of a commodity is determined by its scarcity alone, future anthropologists will be valued indeed.Would They Do It All Again? The answer is--Yes.As in all previous cohorts sampled, a majority (85%) would choose anthropology again if they had it to do all over (Figure 7).(Comparative figures for 1972 = 90%, 1977 = 80%, 1982 = 72%, 1984 = 74%, 1986 = 81%, 1988 = 84% and 1990 = 85%.) Of 1994-95's anthropology PhDs, 67% would complete their graduate training "more or less as they did"; 15% would choose a different specialty within their subfield and 3% would choose a different anthropological specialty.
Sixteen percent would "not pursue training within anthropology again." (For purposes of planning, academic departments are invited to request further statistical details by contacting the Department of Academic Relations, AAA, 2200 Wilson Blvd, Suite 600 , Arlington, VA 22201; 703/528-1902, ext 3010; fax 703/528-3546; [email protected] ).Qualitative Findings To supplement the quantitative analysis of the 1995 Survey of Anthropology PhDs, we asked new PhDs to respond to three open-ended questions.Ninety-two responded to the qualitative section of the survey questionnaire, permitting at least a glimpse beneath the statistics."Go for the doctorate only if you have a passion for anthropology and adventure."Make the best of an uncertain mentoring environment."Get some training in applied anthropology.
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" Advice to Graduate Students In the 1995 Survey, we asked, "What advice would you give to a prospective PhD student in anthropology?" Constructive opinions, presented in their own words, are from anthropologists who received their PhD degrees in 1994-95.(1) Strategies (in no particular order).Have confidence in yourself and take responsibility for yourself and your program .Have confidence in yourself and take responsibility for yourself and your program.
Go to a school with a large endowment (more likely to give financial support).Go to the school that supports unconditionally the kind of research you wish to pursue.
Talk to previous graduate students about their advisers before enlisting your own Who can do a anatomy lab report Platinum US Letter Size 30 days single spaced.Talk to previous graduate students about their advisers before enlisting your own.Be strong not only in theory and method--but in applying them to the real world.Go for the "big-three": grants, publications and a powerful adviser.Get all the "human" support you can from the department.Remember--everything is ultimately your decision.Take technical classes in analytical methods.Get some experience in an interdisciplinary project.
Give conference papers and publish before completing the degree.
Do not go into debt to finance your graduate studies.Finish quickly and get back into the real world ASAP.Choose a topic for which there is already plenty of available data--don't waste time looking for what isn't there.
Try to specialize in two geographic areas, if possible.In cultural anthropology, avoid working in the U.Don't treat the PhD as the "end" of something--but instead as part of a career trajectory.Choose a program that encourages close communication with faculty.Develop a good working relationship with your adviser.Make sure the faculty members you pick are compatible and generous with their time--and that they, themselves, are getting funding.Find out whether faculty members coauthor articles with students.
Do not let faculty push you into areas where you'd rather not go.Realize that faculty members fail to discourage many students who would be far better served doing something else.Always think in terms of fundable research.Pick a geographic area that is being funded by the U.
Do not enroll in a PhD program unless you are assured of funding (without funding, many drop out after a few years).Choose a program that encourages rapid progress.Be aware of job prospects and choose courses accordingly.
Take time to build contacts with professionals outside your institution.Go to meetings and make contacts as early as possible.Don't overestimate your opportunities in the future job market.
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Find a niche which is not overpopulated.Upon completion of your PhD, be willing to wait up to four years for a position in academics.The sense of achievement after a PhD--without future employment possibilities--will soon fade For website updates and to assist the Program Administration with other Molecular Medicine Program The Molecular Medicine Ph.D. Program shares office space with the other interdisciplinary graduate programs. student progress, including coursework, laboratory rotations, thesis and research progress, and career..The sense of achievement after a PhD--without future employment possibilities--will soon fade.
Don't choose such narrow training that you are less "sellable" after receiving the degree.Link your anthropological training to other fields--e Popularity Index, Comic, Title. 5319, Graph - Work output' view comic. 4726, Grad student etiquette' view comic. 4546, Vacation v. Stress' view comic. 3626, How Grad School is just like Kindergarten' view comic. 3586, Seminar Bingo' view comic. 3570, The Economic Meltdown' view comic. 3480, Author List' view comic..Link your anthropological training to other fields--e., to agriculture, business, psychology, etc.Gain practical skills for alternate positions (e.Are you sure? Be very sure that this is what you want to do nbd-dhofar.com/paper/where-to-buy-an-anthropology-paper-double-spaced-chicago-writing-from-scratch-high-quality.
Are you sure? Be very sure that this is what you want to do.
Go for it only if you have a passion for anthropology and adventure.Do not enter for the sake of a career--only for love of anthropology itself.Don't do this unless you are obsessed with the field and are willing to work for very little money.Weigh carefully your love for the profession versus your desire for economic stability.
Accept that a career in anthropology is more like an artist's career than a lawyer's.Study what you love and care about, and don't worry about the future.If it's your dream--Go for it! Mentoring We also asked, "How would you describe the mentoring process you went through in graduate school?" As one woman answered, "Poor, in terms of preparing me for obtaining a job in academia--or perhaps I should say preparing me for the lack of jobs in academia." Another member of 1994-95's cohort responded, "I did not receive a lot of `mentoring,' and did most of my research independent of advisers.As a result, I don't feel I got good advice on how to prepare for an academic career.
" Apart from career counseling itself, faculty received mixed reviews on mentoring--from "excellent" to "so-so" (and from "zilch" to "nil").I had wonderful outside contacts in academia who provided introductions, support and intellectual stimulation." A man answered the question with a question: "What mentoring process?" A woman's interjection: "Poor!" Miscellaneous comments reveal the range of mentoring quality--high positives, high negatives--and the depth of feeling shown by those being mentored: I had excellent access to all faculty; they provided excellent intellectual mentoring.
My mentoring was meager in the extreme--the word hardly applies.Socialization into the discipline was largely hands-off.
My mentoring was very effective--it kept me going.The majority of professors had very little time for graduate students, so we banded together ourselves.I was never advised to attempt to publish anything, nor to present papers.The faculty did nothing to help guide first year students.Mentoring was good to very good at the level of the main adviser; fair for the rest of the faculty.My adviser did not have any real advice except on academic issues; I was not prepared for the consulting side of anthropology.I was disappointed by the mentoring from my adviser, but other members of my committee were very helpful.
Most support came from nonanthropologists in my area studies.Unstructured--but I got what I asked for.The modal word to describe mentoring was "nonexistent." Thus, the following comment from a member of the 1994-95 PhD cohort may be helpful to current and future graduate students: " Mentoring was OK--but I had to be very aggressive to get it.
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" Applied & Academic Finally, we asked, "During their training, should anthropology PhDs prepare for careers in both the applied and the academic realms?" The following list of responses summarizes this cohort's strong opinion that anthropology PhD programs should prepare students for careers in both: Absolutely (2*)