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After all the hard work you've put into researching and writing, spending extra time formatting your paper might not seem all that necessary.Things like citations, margins, and spacing don't seem nearly that important compared to what's actually in your paper, and sorting through the dozens of citations styles and formatting rules can be an irritating task.
But as annoying as they may be, those formatting guidelines are an important part of turning in a complete research paper: your professor will notice if you've paid attention to the details, and if you plan to publish in the future than these rules are a must Best website to write lab report engineering US Letter Size double spaced 16 pages / 4400 words 3 days.But as annoying as they may be, those formatting guidelines are an important part of turning in a complete research paper: your professor will notice if you've paid attention to the details, and if you plan to publish in the future than these rules are a must.
Council of Science Editors (CSE)/Council of Biology Editors (CBE) The Council for Science Editors (CSE) is a trade organization for editorial professionals working in the sciences.They publish Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers which is the style guide used by many working in biology experiment. Two pages of double spaced text are usually sufficient for this section. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. “Results and Discussion” will comprise the majority of your report. In this section, you will present your observations, data, and analysis of the data in a logical order, usually organized by the order in which .They publish Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers which is the style guide used by many working in biology.(The organization was started in 1957 as the Council of Biological Editors, CBE, which is why the style is sometimes referred to as CBE.) There are a number of other styles used in the natural sciences, particularly in medicine, so if you're working on a paper for one of these classes make sure to check with your teacher about which style guide to use.
Use 1" margins on all four sides of the page where to get a college writing help public relations research paper Undergrad. (yrs 1-2) British US Letter Size.Use 1" margins on all four sides of the page.Indent the start of a paragraph 1/2 inch from the left margin; indent block quotations 1/2 inch as well.
The reference page should use a hanging indent, meaning all lines of a bibliographic entry after the first are indented 1/2 inch.
The CSE style manual does not require any specific font, but in general it's a good idea to use an easily readable font like 12-point Times New Roman or Arial.Number pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner starting with the number two on the page immediately following the title page.Double space the entire paper including the References page and block quotes.The title page should include the title of paper centered on the page, your name centered three quarters of the way down the page, and the class, professor's name, and date centered at the bottom.The title page should not include a header or page number.A shortened version of the title should be included in the header immediately before the page number in the upper right corner starting on the page after the title page (which should be numbered as page 2).Common Spelling, Grammar, and Punctuation Issues Numbers In general, numerals should be used for all numbers except zero and one, which should be spelled out.Words should only be used for: numbers that start a sentence ("Eighty-six students participated in the study.") fractions less than one (two-thirds, three-quarters) single-digit ordinal (seventh, third).Headings Main headings (abstract, introduction, methods, etc.
Headings should be double-spaced with the rest of the paper.The CSE manual encourages the use of subheadings to separate ideas within sections.Subheadings should be centered, in italics, and in sentence case (meaning only the first letter of the subheading is capitalized).Serial comma The CSE manual requires the use of the serial comma (the comma that comes before the conjunction in a series, for example "We need to buy bread, milk, and butter.
Foreign words Organization Research papers formatting using the CSE manual should include sections with the following titles: Abstract, Introduction, Methods (or Materials and Methods), Results, Discussion, References (or Cited References).The paper can have subheadings within each of these sections, but these six should be the only main headings.There's no standardized headings for papers that are not presenting the results of original research.Tables and Figures Tables and figures should be placed either at the top or bottom of the page as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the text.
They should be labeled in sequentially in two separate groups (meaning the first table is labeled Table 1, the second Table 2, etc.and the first figure is labeled Figure 1, the second Figure 2, etc.References to figures should be in parenthesis, and the word figures can be listed whole or abbreviated as fig (e.
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The sources for figures should be given in the figure description and not as a citation.Tables should be given a short title, with the number and title listed above the table.Figures should include a description given below the figure Guide to writing lab reports.
Figures should include a description given below the figure.
Citations Citation-sequence When using the citation-sequence style, sources are cited by including a number either in superscript or parenthesis after the cited material.Numbers should be listed in order starting with one, with each number referring to the corresponding entry on the Several species have been found to rely on S.alternaflora for food, including Snow Geese 1 and several kinds of snails.alternaflora is also important for building a strong marsh ecosystem best websites to write a theological studies coursework Academic APA US Letter Size.
alternaflora is also important for building a strong marsh ecosystem.
It traps sediment and debris, gradually building embankments where other species, such as mussels, will settle nbd-dhofar.com/coursework/best-websites-to-write-a-theological-studies-coursework-academic-apa-us-letter-size-originality.It traps sediment and debris, gradually building embankments where other species, such as mussels, will settle.4 In hybridized form, 3 Note that more than one reference can be included together, and that when a work is referred to after it's already been cited, it should be cited with the same number as was listed earlier.The References page will list all the bibliographic information for your sources.Entries should be numbered to correspond with the numbers cited in the text.Examples of entries from several common types of sources are below.
When the source is quoted directly in the text, the page number is added to the end of the entry.Book with one author *Note: Only the first word of book and article titles should be capitalized.Book with two authors Chapter in a book 3.Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press; 2005.Effect of industrial pollution on wetlands.*Note: Journal titles in CSE citations are abbreviated.You can look here for a list of journal title abbreviations.Boston: Songbird Society of New England, 16 June 2006 cited 2011 Aug 6 .
Name-year The CSE manual also allows you to cite sources using the authors name and the publication year in parenthesis, a style similar to that used in other formatting guides like Several species have been found to rely on S.alternaflora for food, including Snow Geese and several kinds of snails (Walken 1996; Alwood 1998).alternaflora is also important for building a strong marsh ecosystem.
It traps sediment and debris, gradually building embankments where other species, such as mussels, will settle (Weston, 2006).Walken (1996) also showed that in hybridized form, S.When a source is quoted directly, the page number should be included in the parenthesis, for example (Alwood 1998, p 127).All cited sources should be collected as an alphabetical (by author's late name) list under the heading Cited References.
Examples of entries for common types of sources are below.Note that the entries are the same as those for the citation-sequence style, except for the date, which has been moved to directly follow the author's name.Also note that the references in the author-year system are not numbered.Book with one author Book with two authors Chapter in a book Xee, QI.
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Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press.Book read online/ebook Walken, SK, Underwood, JP.
Journal article Website Common Songbirds InternetHow to write a good scientific or laboratory report The University of nbsp.Journal article Website Common Songbirds Internet .
Boston: Songbird Society of New England.
Checklist for Formal Lab Reports In order to eliminate some common problems in formal lab reports, please check the following items.A separate checklist is available that is designed for general scientific papers instead of formal lab reports Buy Assignments Online from Assignment Writing Service.A separate checklist is available that is designed for general scientific papers instead of formal lab reports.BEFORE STARTING TO WRITE: Analyze data and perform calculations - you may need to redo this if not correct in lab notebook best website to purchase public relations research paper Doctoral Formatting 1 hour.BEFORE STARTING TO WRITE: Analyze data and perform calculations - you may need to redo this if not correct in lab notebook.List all equations that are needed for the analysis - it is likely that these should be derived or discussed in the theory section of the paper.
Make an Outline to construct the basic structure of the paper.Decide who you are writing for and aim at an appropriate level.Form a "thesis statement" - a short (1-3 sentence) statement of what you want the reader to understand as the most important point in your paper.This statement may end up appearing in the abstract or introduction.Look up the "accepted values" for all constants (e, e/ m, .
See Physics Today, August of most years for an up-to-date list.The CODATA database of the latest physical constants can be found at / .Report accepted values in your paper with the stated uncertainties and a reference.The front covers of textbooks such as Serway or Tipler are not an acceptable reference WHILE WRITING & MAKING GLOBAL REVISIONS TO THE PAPER Double space your paper.
Use Times-Roman 12-point font or larger throughout.It should contain (in some format) an abstract and introduction, some theory to support paper (primarily any equations used), some procedure and apparatus description.It should also discuss the measurements which were taken, the analysis of the data performed, and conclusions.Make sure that the text in each paragraph agrees with the opening sentence of the paragraph.
Break the paragraphs by logical divisions.All graphs, pictures, drawings, diagrams, sketches, etc."All tabular material must be called a "Table." All Figures and Tables must be numbered and include a 1-3 sentence caption.
If desired, figures may be on separate pages at the end of the reports, and the captions may be on a page of captions instead of the bottom of the figure.All Figures and Tables must be referred to, by number, in the text - do not include figures or tables which are not referred to in the text.Any scanned figures, such as circuit diagrams, must be sharp, clear and easy to read.It is often better to manually cut-and-paste figures instead of scanning and inserting them into the documents.Figures must be attributed if they are not your original work, including if they are copied from a lab manual.
Do not include a fitting program printout or spreadsheet table unless it is "cleaned up" (change column headings, correct number of significant figures, units, explain what is on the page, what parameters mean, etc.
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Numeric values of importance (fit parameters, results, etc.) should be in the text of the paper or in a figure caption.Don't force the reader to read printouts and graphs to find parameters 15 Mar 2006 - WHILE WRITING & MAKING GLOBAL REVISIONS TO THE PAPER. ____ Double space your paper. Use Times-Roman 12-point font or larger throughout. ____ Check organization of the paper. It should contain (in some format) an abstract and introduction, some theory to support paper (primarily any .
Don't force the reader to read printouts and graphs to find parameters.
Carefully explain the fitting or analysis method, especially how errors were used, for any calculations.All numeric values should have units and errors (if appropriate).If you are going to state any deviations from accepted values, state as the number of standard deviations (in addition to % error if you want).) any material, including apparatus diagrams, which is not your own or is not "common knowledge" and use a standard style for references order an theological studies coursework 66 pages / 18150 words Platinum APA.) any material, including apparatus diagrams, which is not your own or is not "common knowledge" and use a standard style for references.For this course, the required style is from the AIP Style Manual.Be careful of plagiarism in following the structure of another book too closely.Conclusions should logically follow from data and analysis.read the whole paper! Make a backup copy of your paper on a floppy disk (or other removable media) during and after writing the paper.
PROOF READING OF PAPER (At the Sentence/Paragraph level) Carefully read the whole paper from a printed page! Check carefully for any reformatting that your word processor may have done.Check the spelling (run spell checker if using a word processor).Be careful of correctly spelled words that are not correct (such as "then" instead of "than" or "excepted" instead of "accepted") Avoid the first person (We or I) whenever possible in scientific papers.Never use contractions (wasn't, didn't, .
If a sentence is longer than about 2-3 lines, double check to make sure it is not run-on or that you shouldn't rewrite it.Check tense of verbs and remain consistent: Past Tense (was, were) Present Tense (is, are).Check noun/verb agreement (singular/plural): The coil's diameter were measured .Check punctuation, particularly of equations.Avoid unnecessary words (often "then" is not needed, replace phrases such as "due to the fact that" with "because" or "in order to" with "to") Make sure you have written in any equations, Greek characters, etc.
Make sure that any needed figures or tables are attached to the paper.Make sure that your report is clearly printed using a high-resolution laser printer or inkjet printer.Text that is not sharp and easy to read, or that is dim because of a nearly empty toner/inkjet cartridge will not be accepted.Recheck that the printed font is 12-point or larger.
Ontogenetic Color Change and Mating Cues in Largus californicus (Hemiptera: Largidae) Carey Booth Box 123 Lab instructor: Ned Knight Abstract Ontogenetic color change at sexual maturation can be useful in identifying an appropriate mate for some organisms.Largus californicus individuals undergo two ontogenetic color changes.First instars are bright red, second through fifth instars are shiny blue-black, and adults are black with orange markings.Adult male mating behavior suggested that the change in color from fifth instars to adults might enable males to discriminate between nymphs and adults.Males mount adults and persist if they have mounted a female and quickly release if they have mounted another male.
Males were never observed to mount nymphs.Female color patterns were altered and male's copulatory attempts were timed to determine if color pattern was used by males in mating decisions.
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The null hypothesis that dorsal color pattern does not significantly affect male mating behavior could not be rejected, therefore the significance of the color change from nymph to adult must be sought elsewhere.Introduction Ontogenetic color change at the time of sexual maturation has been shown to be advantageous to fish (Fricke 1980), reptiles (Werner, 1978), and birds (Lyon and Montgomerie, 1986).In general, dull-colored juveniles avoid predation risk and harassment by breeding males, and sexually mature individuals use bright colors to advertise their readiness to mate (Booth, 1990a) 20 Feb 2014 - Astronomy at the University of Manchester. Therefore you can edit it to produce your reports. b) It contains examples on the use of Microsoft Wor. c) It contains Do not change the style, i.e. the fonts, spacing, layout etc. the first two words are hyphenated, but in this case you can get away with it and just..
In general, dull-colored juveniles avoid predation risk and harassment by breeding males, and sexually mature individuals use bright colors to advertise their readiness to mate (Booth, 1990a).
In insects, mating cues are often chemical rather than visual (Jacobson, 1972), but there are some exceptions.In diurnal Lepidoptera, adult color pattern plays an important role in the initial phase of mating behavior (Graham et al.In holometabolous insects, such as Lepidoptera, maturation is associated with dramatic morphological changes, therefore distinguishing between larvae and adults for mating attempts is not difficult Example of a poorly written lab report. (single-spaced to conserve paper; yours should be double-spaced to leave room for comments). Ontogenetic Color Change and Mating Cues in Largus californicus (Hemiptera: Largidae). Carey Booth Box 123. Biology 102 2 February 1995. Lab instructor: Ned Knight Lab day: Friday..In holometabolous insects, such as Lepidoptera, maturation is associated with dramatic morphological changes, therefore distinguishing between larvae and adults for mating attempts is not difficult.The recognition of maturity is more difficult in hemimetabolous insects where late instars may be similar to adults in size and shape.
The possibility that ontogenetic color change in some Hemiptera may have evolved as an indication of maturation has not been investigated experimentally.The mating behavior of male Largus californicus suggests that males may be using visual cues, perhaps in addition to pheromonal cues, to distinguish between fifth instars and adults for mating attempts.Fifth instars are shiny blue-black and almost adult-sized.Adults (both males and females) are black with orange borders around the thickened portion of the hemelytra and pronotum (Booth, 1990b).Although males were never observed to mount nymphs, they do mount other adults, and persist if they have mounted a female or release within a few seconds if they have mounted another male.
Their distinctive courtship behavior allows an observer to identify immediately the initiation of a mating event.This consists of the male orienting towards the female when he is approximately 1 cm away, rapidly waving his antennae, leaping onto the female's back, and agitatedly grabbing the female with his legs.As their genitals do not immediately join, it is possible to separate a pair before they actually mate.These bugs do not fly and are easily handled and painted without significantly disrupting their normal behavior.Experiments were designed to determine if males use color cues in their mating decision and if their behavior could explain the significance of the ontogenetic color change from fifth instars to adults.
The null hypothesis that dorsal color pattern does not significantly affect male mating behavior was tested.Materials and Methods The experiment was performed outdoors at the Main Campus Reserve at the University of California, Santa Barbara on January 31, 1988.Bugs were collected from the Reserve on the morning of the testing day.Tests were performed when the bugs are normally active (1030 to 1430 hours) and control tests were interspersed between experimental tests so that time of day, temperature, cloudiness, and other environmental variables would be approximately the same between experiment and control.An acrylic black paint and clear finish were used in each treatment.
The first treatment was black paint and clear finish on the ventral surface of the female to control for the smell of the paints without altering the black and orange pattern on the dorsum.The second treatment was clear finish on the dorsum to control for covering the dorsal surface, which may reduce any scent emitted or otherwise affect the female's behavior.The third treatment was black paint on the dorsum to mimic the color of the fifth instars.The three treatments will be referred to as normal, clear, and black for brevity.One female was used for all three treatments to hold other aspects (size, shape, scent) of the female's attractiveness constant.
The order of presentation of the three treatments was necessarily the same for all males, as the one female in each experiment could only have black paint added after the normal and clear treatments.This design allows for a repeated measures analysis of variance as each male is tested with the same female under three different paint conditions.After each painting, the female was placed in a clear plastic 9 x 7 x 3 cm box.Males were held separately in labeled plastic petri dishes.
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Each male was introduced one at a time into the box at the point farthest from the female.
He was removed when he mounted the female or after an arbitrarily chosen time of 270 seconds had elapsed, whichever came first.The time to mount or 270 seconds (no-mount) was recorded Where to get a lab report engineering 100% plagiarism-free US Letter Size Formatting Vancouver Academic.The time to mount or 270 seconds (no-mount) was recorded.
The pair was separated before their genitalia joined so no actual mating occurred.After all 15 males were tested, the female was painted for the next treatment and the males were tested in the same order If you need custom essays in the UK, take advantage of our custom essay writing services. Trusted essay help is here! Get custom essays written by essay writers today..After all 15 males were tested, the female was painted for the next treatment and the males were tested in the same order.To control for the possibility of males tiring by the second or third trial, a similar number of different males were tested three times each with one untreated female; i If you need custom essays in the UK, take advantage of our custom essay writing services. Trusted essay help is here! Get custom essays written by essay writers today..
To control for the possibility of males tiring by the second or third trial, a similar number of different males were tested three times each with one untreated female; i.
no changes were made to the female between trials.Trials were alternated between experimental and control males throughout the day of testing.A total of two females (one experimental and one control) and 29 males (15 experimental and 14 control) were used.Statistical analyses were performed using the StatView program on a Macintosh microcomputer.
One-way, repeated measures ANOVAs were used to test for differences in males' time to mount among the three treatments and among the three control trials.Results No significant differences were found in males' time to mount among the three treatments or among the three control trials based on a repeated measures ANOVA (Table 1).Males mounted black painted females as readily as females with the typical black and orange pattern.There was a slight, but not significant, increase in male's mean time to mount for the black treatment as compared to the normal and clear treatments (Figure 1).The 95% confidence intervals were also larger for the black treatment.
The first control trial had a slightly larger, but not significantly different, male's mean time to mount as compared to the second and third trials (Figure 2).The male's mean times to mount were lower for the three control trials than for the three experimental treatments.Because the maximal time males were allowed to stay in the box without mounting the female was chosen arbitrarily, the one case where a male did not mount the female within the allotted 270 seconds could have biased the results (Table 1).After excluding the mount time for the male that failed to mount, the results did not differ qualitatively from the above: no significant differences were found.Discussion By using one female for all three color treatments, any non-color aspects of the female's attractiveness were held constant.
As the null hypothesis (that males' time to mount is not significantly affected by color of the female) was not rejected, males evidently used those other traits in seeking a mate.The male behavior of mounting other adults (male or female) and not nymphs may indicate that there are pheromonal differences between nymphs and adults but not between adult males and females.Males release other males rapidly once contact has been made, so chemical cues transferred by touch or other close range signals (such as sound) may be used to distinguish males from females.There are slight shape differences between nymphs and adults (nymphs are more spherical) that could possibly be used by males in mating decisions.Other experiments are necessary to determine the nature of the communication between adults and between adults and nymphs.
Among hemipterans, several species use pheromones as mating cues.Males of the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula) release a pheromone that attracts females, males, late-stage nymphs, and a parasitoid (Aldrich et al.Females of Dysdercus cingulatus and Pyrrhocoris apterus also produce substances attractive to males (Osmani and Naidu, 1967; Zdarek, 1970).As these last two species are in the same superfamily (Pyrrhocoroidea) as L.
californicus females also produce a pheromone that is attractive to males.However, several species in the family Largidae, including L.
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californicus), have minimal development of the metathoracic scent gland evaporative area (Schaefer, 1972), so their use of pheromonal communication may be limited.
The use of pheromones does not rule out the possibility that visual cues may also be important.Pheromone strains of the cosmopolitan pest, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) .
Pheromone strains of the cosmopolitan pest, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).
Evolutionary significance of ontogenetic colour change in animals.Biology of Largus californicus (Hemiptera: Largidae).Juvenile-adult colour patterns and coexistence in the territorial coral reef fish Pomacanthus imperator 2 Feb 2013 - You should already know all the possible referencing styles and if you write academic papers on science, you will most likely use CSE. Spacing. Double space the entire paper including the References page and block quotes. Title page. The title page should include the title of paper centered on the .Juvenile-adult colour patterns and coexistence in the territorial coral reef fish Pomacanthus imperator.mating attractiveness: Adaptive pressures on the "alba" polymorphism of Colias butterflies.Delayed plumage maturation in passerine birds: reliable signaling by subordinate males? Evolution 40: 605-615.
Evidence of sex attractant in female Dysdercus cingulatus Fabr.Degree of metathoracic scent-gland development in the trichophorous Heteroptera (Hemiptera).On the biology of Tropidurus delanonis, Baur (Iguanidae).Mating behaviour in the bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.(Heteroptera): ontogeny and its environmental control.
Repeated measures ANOVA on males' time to mount female (in seconds).Treatment or Trial b SEM = standard error of the mean c F = F statistic e P = probability value f Each Largus californicus male was tested with the same female under three different paint conditions.Black and clear paint on the dorsum = Normal treatment.
Clear paint on the dorsum = Clear treatment.Black paint on the dorsum = Black treatment to mimic the color of the fifth instar larva.g Different males were tested three times each with one untreated female = Control trials 1-3.Figure 1: Mean male mount time (sec) with 95% confidence intervals under three experimental conditions.Each Largus californicus male was tested for time to mount (attempting copulation) with the same female under three different paint conditions.
Normal = Black and clear paint on the dorsum to control for odor of paints.Clear = Clear paint on the dorsum to control for covering the dorsal surface.Black = Black paint on the dorsum to mimic the color of the fifth instar larva.Figure 2: Mean male mount time (sec) with 95% confidence intervals for three control trials.Different Largus californicus males were tested for time to mount (attempting copulation) three times each with one untreated female to control for order of presentation in the experimental treatments.