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Dear APA Style Experts, Is it okay for a heading to be alone at the very bottom of a page while the first paragraph of that section begins at the top of the next page? I checked page 62 in the Publication Manual where it talks about levels of heading, but I couldn’t find any answers to this question.Dear Keith, Yes, in an APA Style manuscript, it’s perfectly fine to have a heading at the bottom of one page with the body of the section starting on the next page.In fact, you can see examples of this at the beginning of Sample Paper 2 (see pp Item 80 - 16351 - The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand, and Writing Center tutors can help you to use them.   Basic APA Facts. Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the reference page. Leave margins of at least one-inch at the top, bottom, right, and left of every  .In fact, you can see examples of this at the beginning of Sample Paper 2 (see pp.

54–55 in the sixth edition of the Lonely headings like these are sometimes called orphans in typesetting.An orphan can also mean the first line of a paragraph that’s left all alone at the bottom of a page.When the last line of a paragraph appears by itself at the top of the page, typesetters may refer to it as a widow Need to buy a government paper Academic 1 hour Harvard A4 (British/European).

When the last line of a paragraph appears by itself at the top of the page, typesetters may refer to it as a widow.

Widows, like orphans, are acceptable in APA Style manuscripts.However, if you’re a student writing a class paper or a dissertation, your professor or university may have standards that differ from APA Style.Universities have particularly precise criteria for dissertations and theses that often address widows and orphans—sometimes even specifying the minimum number of lines of text that can appear on the same page as a table.

Your professor or a dissertation committee will be the ones evaluating your work, not APA, so their standards supersede those in the Publication Manual.

You should therefore ask your professor or dissertation advisor about whether widows and orphans are acceptable.You may be wondering why the Publication Manual doesn’t discuss widows and orphans.This is because the guidelines in the manual were designed with draft journal articles in mind.They don’t directly address issues that are more relevant to a final article’s appearance and composition, including widows and orphans, which are sorted out during typesetting.Publishers generally determine what their articles will look like when they go to print, so they establish their own typesetting standards.

Although the Publication Manual doesn’t weigh in on these issues, section 8.239–240) briefly addresses an author’s responsibilities during typesetting, which includes sending the manuscript files to the publisher in an acceptable format and double-checking the typeset page proofs for any errors.Although some aspects of a draft manuscript carry over into the typeset version—the reference list follows the same APA Style guidelines, for example—the appearance and composition of the article will change drastically.The font type and size, the margins, and the line spacing are all typically very different after typesetting.

Some articles will also be formatted so that the text is split into two columns.And, the tables and figures that appear at the end of the manuscript will be embedded close to their first mention in the text.All this rearranging and redesigning means that what were once widows and orphans in a draft manuscript will likely be in completely different places in the final version.There’s no reason to be too concerned about these lonely lines of text during the draft stage if they will be reunited with their lost relatives during typesetting and appear together in the final article.If you’re a student, your schoolwork won’t go through this whole process before it’s finalized.

Your paper is considered “final” when you submit it to your professor.For example, a dissertation, once submitted, becomes the final, published version of record.

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Therefore, it’s important to consider the final appearance of your paper during the draft stage.Some formatting issues not covered in the Publication Manual will need to be addressed while you’re writing your paper.When in doubt, always check with your professor or university to see if they have their own preferred standards APA Style Blog.

When in doubt, always check with your professor or university to see if they have their own preferred standards.

And, in case you were wondering, APA Style doesn’t have any guidelines concerning bears.I doubt your professor or university will have any either.September 20, 2017 references and citations Introduction to APA Style.September 20, 2017 references and citations.If you are new to writing with APA Style, you might wonder “What’s the difference?” Like this apple and orange, they are created separately but work well together!References References appear at the end of a manuscript.They follow a who–when–what–where format.

Retrieved from /apastyle/2017/09/References-versus-citations They appear (a) so you can give credit to your sources and (b) to provide a path for your readers to retrieve those sources and read them firsthand.Citations Citations appear in the body of your paper and point your reader to your references.

For that reason, we sometimes call them in-text citations.They are also sometimes called simply cites.Citations can appear in a paper in two ways:narratively: Becker (2012), Lee (2016), and McAdoo (2017) wrote blog posts about APA Style.Include them in a paper to support claims you have made and/or to provide the sources for paraphrases and direct quotations.As shown in the examples above, citations are almost always composed of an author surname or surnames and a date.

The surname(s) that appear in a citation must exactly match those used in the reference.Likewise, the year in the citation matches the year shown in the reference.When the reference has a more precise date, the in-text citation includes the year only.For example, compare the reference and the in-text citation for a tweet.For more about creating in-text citations, see Writing In-Text Citations in APA Style.

As noted above, most citations include author names; but, because some references have no author, their citations also have no author: When the reference includes no author, the citation includes the title (or a short version of the title).Also, many types of legal references do not include author names.To learn more about legal references and citations, see Introduction to APA Style Legal References.Posted by Timothy McAdoo at 12:29 PM in In-text citations, References | Permalink | Comments (0) | September 06, 2017 Each fall we put together a “best of” post to highlight blog posts and pages that we think are helpful both for new students and to those who are familiar with APA Style.You can get the full story in our sixth editionFollow @APAStyleCENTRAL on Twitter Our institutional software product for learning, writing, research, and publishing, APA Style CENTRAL, has now been available to the public for a little more than a year.

Check with your librarian to see whether your school subscribes.

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Keep in Touch! We hope that these resources will be helpful to you as you write using APA Style.If you are interested in receiving tips about APA Style as well as general writing advice, we encourage you to follow us on social media.You can find us (and tell your friends) on Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ Writing Research Papers in APA Style Empire State College FTP.

You can find us (and tell your friends) on Facebook, Twitter, and Google+.

June 15, 2017 If there’s a typo in a quotation, you use sic to show the reader that the error is in the original source and that you’re faithfully quoting it just as it appeared.

But, what if there’s a mistake in an article’s title? Do you add sic to the reference? We recommend not doing that, because it may appear to be part of the reference title Where to find a custom paper government confidentiality Writing from scratch one day American A4 (British/European).But, what if there’s a mistake in an article’s title? Do you add sic to the reference? We recommend not doing that, because it may appear to be part of the reference title.First, know that typos in titles of published journal articles and book chapters are rare.If you think you’ve found a typo, there are a three things to check first: Is it really a typo? Or is it a rhetorical device or an author’s creative license? For example, in a title like “It's More Than Reading, Writing and 'Rithmetic,” the author is aware of the misspelling, and you should not add a footnote.Likewise, you need not add a footnote if the title includes contractions or slang.

Example article with an intentional misspelling (do not use sic or a footnote) Monitor on Psychology, 34(9), 46–47.1037/e319112004-036 Did the typo appear in the published article? Or, is it a typo only in the database, web page, or other source where you found the title? That is, let’s say you discovered an article via a search of the PsycINFO database.If you notice a typo, first determine whether the article was published that way or whether that’s a mistake in the database record only.(If so, let us know, and we’ll correct the record!) To do so: First, find a PDF or a print copy of the article.

Publishers often offer a free table of contents.If you can’t track down an original, you can always contact the publisher’s office.If the article title really included a typo, explain in a footnote, if you want to ensure that your readers know that the mistake is not yours.Example article that published with a typo in the title (explain in a footnote) Linn, L.

Social identification and the seeking of pyschiatric 1 care.1The published article includes this typo.Posted by Timothy McAdoo at 4:04 PM in Journal articles, References | Permalink | Comments (8) | May 31, 2017by Chelsea Lee This post is part of a series on author names.Other posts in the series will be linked at the bottom of this post as they are published.

Typically APA Style reference list entries and in-text citations do not include the authors’ academic credentials or professional titles.For example, if a book is written by Samantha T.Smith, PhD, then the reference entry refers to Smith, S.Professional titles are also omitted from reference list entries and in-text citations.For example, for a Thomas the Train book written by the Reverend W.Awbry, the reference refers to Awbry, W.

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, and the in-text citation will be to Awbry (1946).Here are some common examples of academic credentials and professional titles to omit from references and citations (note this is not an exhaustive list—anything in a similar vein will count): Academic degrees or May 24, 2017by Chelsea Lee This post is part of a series on author names.

Other posts in the series will be linked at the bottom of this post as they are published How to Cite References in APA Style ISEG.Other posts in the series will be linked at the bottom of this post as they are published.

This post addresses how to cite authors who have only one name.These people include celebrities (like Madonna or the artist formerly known as Prince) as well as many people from Indonesia 5 Oct 2017 - Read what writing experts say each week about all aspects of writing and style—from publication ethics to precision in reporting research to reference style and the clear expression of ideas. Join the discussion!.These people include celebrities (like Madonna or the artist formerly known as Prince) as well as many people from Indonesia.To cite works by these people, provide the full name without abbreviation, because abbreviating the given name would render the name unintelligible 5 Oct 2017 - Read what writing experts say each week about all aspects of writing and style—from publication ethics to precision in reporting research to reference style and the clear expression of ideas. Join the discussion!.To cite works by these people, provide the full name without abbreviation, because abbreviating the given name would render the name unintelligible.So for example, a work by Sukarno, the first president of Indonesia, would be cited as such: Reference list: May 17, 2017by Chelsea Lee This post is part of a series on author names.

Other posts in the series will be linked at the bottom of this post as they are published.Most people have one or more given names and a surname.However, the order of these names varies across cultures.This can create confusion when a writer is figuring out how to cite an author from a culture with different naming practices than the writer’s own.To help you resolve questions regarding name order, do a little detective work.

Look at how the author has been cited in other works and follow that presentation of the name.Authors usually use the default name order for the language in which they are publishing, so take your cues for name order from the language in which the article is written.For example, Yi-Chun Chang may publish as Yi-Chun Chang in an English journal but as Chang Yi-Chun in a Chinese journal.In either case, the APA Style format for the name is Chang, Y., in the reference list entry and Chang (2016) in the in-text citation.Sometimes the surname is presented in all-capital letters on the source to distinguish it from the given name(s), for example, CHANG Yi-Chun or Yi-Chun CHANG.Do not retain the all-caps style for the reference; still write this name as Chang, Y., in the reference list entry and as Chang (2016) in the text citation.

Other Questions Do you have more questions on author names in APA Style? See these other posts, or leave a comment below: May 10, 2017by Chelsea Lee This post is part of a series on author names.Other posts in the series will be linked at the bottom of this post as they are published.Although APA encourages authors to use one format for their name throughout their publishing career, inconsistencies do arise, and some authors choose to change their name for professional publication.This post addresses how to cite works in each of these circumstances.Inconsistent Presentation Sometimes names are presented inconsistently across publications.

If the author has used different forms of the same name on different works, then your reference list entries should match the form of the name on the work being cited for reasons of retrievability.

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For example, sometimes the author may use a middle initial and sometimes not (e.Baker sometimes publishes as Jacob Baker).

Because both names refer to the same person and the differences between names are minor (namely, a missing initial), it is not necessary to adjust the order of the works in the reference list to account for the missing initial or to put the author’s initials in the text citations to distinguish the references Sources” to find “How to Guides to Writing and Style.”) REFERENCE LIST. APA style requires that an alphabetical listing of the sources actually used and cited be placed at the end of term papers and reports. Although reference entries below are single-spaced due to paper restrictions,. APA style references should normally  .Because both names refer to the same person and the differences between names are minor (namely, a missing initial), it is not necessary to adjust the order of the works in the reference list to account for the missing initial or to put the author’s initials in the text citations to distinguish the references.

(Read more about the order of works in the reference list and see examples.) Name Changes Another case is when an author has changed names, such as a surname change after marriage or divorce or a name change for a transgender author Why Use APA Style? Abiding by the rules of APA style makes it easier for others to understand your writing. Your reader will be able to find what they are looking for, follow   that no single study can prove a theory or hypothesis.   Your paper should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5 X 11 inches)..) Name Changes Another case is when an author has changed names, such as a surname change after marriage or divorce or a name change for a transgender author.Do not change the name on a work if an author has published under different names; cite the work using the name shown on the publication you read.In most cases, it is not necessary to note for the reader that two different names refer to the same person; just cite each work normally.

Williams, then cite the works in the text as McDonald (2005) and Williams (2017), respectively; in the reference list, the works should be alphabetized under M and W, respectively nbd-dhofar.com/research-proposal/where-to-get-a-accounting-research-proposal-chicago-a4-british-european-double-spaced.Williams, then cite the works in the text as McDonald (2005) and Williams (2017), respectively; in the reference list, the works should be alphabetized under M and W, respectively.Example change to a hyphenated or two-part surname: If Taylor T.Hartley-Jones, then cite the works in the text as Hartley (2010) and Hartley-Jones (2017), respectively; in the reference list, all works by Hartley come before those published by Hartley-Jones because of the rules of alphabetizing the reference list.(The same principle applies if Taylor had decided to use no hyphen between the surnames, for example, Taylor T.) See this blog post on two-part surnames for more.Example first name change for a transgender author (different initials): If John J.

Smith now publishes under the name Rebecca L.Smith, and if you cite works published under both names in your paper, then cite the works in the text as J.Smith (2015), respectively; in the reference list, take the initials into account and put works by Smith, J.Note: If you cite only works published as John or only works published as Rebecca, then no initials in the text or description of the author’s name change are necessary; just cite the works normally.

Example first name change for a transgender author (same initials): If Alicia K.Johnson now publishes under the name Adam K.Johnson, and if you cite works published under both names in your paper, then cite the works in the text as Alicia K.Johnson (2017), respectively—including the full name of the author because the initials are the same but the names themselves are different.

In the reference list, put the author’s first name in brackets to alert the reader that the first names are different.The entries would be as follows: Johnson, A.Note that if you cite only works published as Alicia or only works published as Adam, then no full names in the text and reference list or description of the author’s name change are necessary.

Making Note of a Name Change Although in most cases it is not necessary to note that two different names refer to the same person, there are cases when it would be relevant or useful to do so. For example, if you are reviewing multiple works by an author to describe the history of their research and a difference in name might confuse the reader, explain in the text that the two different names refer to the same person.

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Be warned; this might require some finesse to straighten out the citations.For example, you might write, Smith-Hartman (publishing as Smith, 2010) pioneered treatment for depression and anxiety.In particular, she discovered a novel therapy involving the use of animals (Smith-Hartman, 2016) use double line spacing. • use the same font and size as the text. • give the source and page number in brackets after the final full-stop. (APA, 2010, p. 171, Section 6.03)   You can find excellent advice about APA style, including both referencing and formatting, at   Retrieved from https://desportal.emergency.qld.gov.au..

In particular, she discovered a novel therapy involving the use of animals (Smith-Hartman, 2016).

Other Questions Do you have more questions on author names in APA Style? See these other posts, or leave a comment below: April 12, 2017by Chelsea Lee If a reference list entry begins with a number (as might be the case for a reference with no author), you should alphabetize the entry in the reference list as though the number were spelled out.So in the following example, the reference that begins with 50 would be alphabetized as though 50 were written fifty.For numbers that represent years, use the way the year is commonly said to alphabetize the reference 26 Oct 2017 - Quick links. Theses Specifications · Document Services · About MIT Theses in [email protected] · Scholarly [email protected] · About [email protected] · Dissertation/Theses  .For numbers that represent years, use the way the year is commonly said to alphabetize the reference.For example, a reference beginning with 1984 would be alphabetized as though it were writtennineteen eighty-four, not one thousand nine hundred eighty-four.In the text, cite references beginning with a number with the first two pieces of the reference list entry: here, that's the title and the year because the reference has no author.

If the title in the reference list is nonitalic, put the title in double quotation marks in the in-text citation and captialize it using title case; if the title in the reference list is italic, keep the title in italics in the in-text citation and capitalize it using title case.If the title is long, you can use just the first few words.Example in-text citation: ("50 Ways," 2017)Got other numerical alphabetization questions? Ask away in the comments section.IN THE APA STYLE This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the APA style.For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or a style guide to writing research papers.

The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand, and Writing Center tutors can help you to use them.Always ask your mentor which style to use before you begin to write your paper.The APA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the American Psychological Association.The APA style is used in the social sciences and is governed by two basic ideas.The first is that a scientific paper attempts to show something that has already been proven true, so it calls for the past or present perfect tense when you cite the work of others.

Second, the year of publication is important, so you need to feature it immediately after any named source in the text.Smyth (1972) Williams and Maier (1994) Use the present tense for generalizations and personal comments.Use the past or present perfect tenses only to introduce the work of cited sources.Evidence of the rise of the heroin use exists for every age group, even children.Burroughs and Bruce (1996) reported on five incidents of heroin overdose in the under 10 age group.

Basic APA Facts Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the reference page.Leave margins of at least one-inch at the top, bottom, right, and left of every page.Use parenthetical citations to acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person.

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Use a reference page for reference to parenthetical citations.Within the text of your paper, underline titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals, films, television programs, and recordings; place in quotation marks titles of articles, essays in anthologies, book chapters, and lectures.

Number pages in the upper right hand corner APA, 6th edition. Your professor may prefer different formatting – please follow his/her guidelines. 1. Avoiding Plagiarism. When writing a research paper, lab report or   block quotation should start on a new line and be double-spaced and indented from the left margin.   Group as Author, including Government Documents..Number pages in the upper right hand corner.

Avoiding Plagiarism Plagiarism is the use of the words and/or ideas of another person without acknowledging the source.Plagiarism is generally grounds for failure of a course and can lead to dismissal from college .Plagiarism is generally grounds for failure of a course and can lead to dismissal from college.To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a reference page .

To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a reference page.

Enclose direct quotations in quotation marks or otherwise indent them from the body of your text.If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, be sure to use your own language and style of writing — don't simply rearrange the words.Use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source, then list on a reference page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations.For more detailed information on plagiarism and how to avoid it, see the handout available at the GVC Writing Center.

In-text Citations Cite the first appearance of another person's words and/or ideas by introducing the quotation or paraphrase with the author's name.

After the first appearance, cite the author's name either within the text of your writing or within the parenthetical citation immediately following the cited passage.Always use the last name of the author/authors and the year of publication.The year of publication always follows the name of the cited/quoted authority.Note that commas separate items within parentheses.Following are some examples of in-text citation methods in the APA style.

In his study of the effects of alcohol on the ability to drive, Smith (1991) showed that the reaction times of participating drivers were adversely affected by as little as a twelve ounce can of beer.If you don't use the author's name in the text, place it within the parenthetical citation with the date.A recent study of the effects of alcohol on the ability to drive showed that as little as twelve ounces of beer adversely affected the reaction time of participating drivers (Smith, 1991).Provide a page number when you use an exact quotation.In his study on the effects of alcohol on drivers, Smith (1991, p.104) stated that "participants who drank twelve ounces of beer with a 3.

5% alcohol content reacted, on average, 1.2 seconds more slowly to an emergency braking situation than they did when they had not ingested alcohol." As an alternative, place the page number within parentheses at the end of the quotation.If you do so, remember to place the date immediately after the author's name.

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In his study on the effects of alcohol on drivers, Smith (1991) stated that "participants who drank twelve ounces of beer with a 3.

5% alcohol content reacted, on average, 1.2 seconds more slowly to an emergency braking situation than they did when they had not ingested alcohol" (p will also find materials and resources that outline a variety of issues and topics related to   As such, a number of interrelated factors are considered in determining authorship. The APA Ethical. Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2002, Section 8.12)   Most advisors and senior researchers will be happy to talk..2 seconds more slowly to an emergency braking situation than they did when they had not ingested alcohol" (p.

Indent a direct quotation of 40 or more words five spaces from the left margin.If the quotation includes more than one paragraph, indent the first line of succeeding paragraphs five more spaces (ten spaces total) For an in-depth example of how an APA-style paper should look like, check out this Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style 6th   From the get-go, cite only the last name of the first author, followed by  et al,   and others,  or  and colleagues.  Nokes et al. (2012)   Double-space all of the quote..

If the quotation includes more than one paragraph, indent the first line of succeeding paragraphs five more spaces (ten spaces total).

Don't use quotation marks, and be sure to double space the quotation as well as your own writing For an in-depth example of how an APA-style paper should look like, check out this Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style 6th   From the get-go, cite only the last name of the first author, followed by  et al,   and others,  or  and colleagues.  Nokes et al. (2012)   Double-space all of the quote..Don't use quotation marks, and be sure to double space the quotation as well as your own writing.In her study of adult patterns of television watching, Roberts (1996) reported the following behaviors: Response behaviors exhibited by participants who watched television without any other persons present in the viewing room included imitating the facial expressions and hand movements of television characters as well as talking to individual characters how to order college information technology research proposal Writing from scratch Business double spaced.In her study of adult patterns of television watching, Roberts (1996) reported the following behaviors: Response behaviors exhibited by participants who watched television without any other persons present in the viewing room included imitating the facial expressions and hand movements of television characters as well as talking to individual characters.Affective behaviors included exhibitions of anger such as shouting and throwing magazines at the television.Such behaviors were less evident behaviors in participants who watched television in groups of three.Instead, participants in group watching were more likely to interject critical or humorous comments regarding the content of particular television programs.

If you're citing an author who's been quoted in another book or article, use the original author's name in the text, and cite in parentheses the source in which you found the quotation.As Wallace (1972) postulated in Individual and Group Behavior, a person who acts a certain way independently may act in an entirely different manner while the member of a group (cited in Barkin, 1992, p.When citing a work with two, three, four, or five authors within the text of the paper, name them all in the first entry, e.

After the first entry, cite only the first author's name followed by " et al.If the author is not given, use the first word or two of the title in the parenthetical citation.Massachusetts state and municipal governments have initiated several programs to improve public safety, including community policing and after school activities ("Innovations," 1997).If "Anonymous" is specified as the author, treat it as if it were a real name: (Anonymous, 1996).

In the bibliographic references, also use the name Anonymous as author.

The Reference Page You must always have a reference page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism.The Reference Page immediately follows the text of the paper.Items on the reference page are listed alphabetically.Begin the first line of a reference at the left margin ( i., do not indent the first line as you did in the body text).All subsequent lines for a reference should be indented one-half inch this is sometimes known as an "outdent" or "hanging indent").APA has a second format that uses normal (one-half inch) indents on the first line of a reference, then left justifies subsequent lines to the left margin.This format is only for documents being submitted for publishing.

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Student papers should always use the first (hanging indent) format.

For the reference page, use the running head and page number, then center the title "References" two lines below.Books List the author's last name first with initial of the first name; year of publication in parentheses; title of book underlined (capitalize only the first word of the title and of any subtitle, and all proper nouns); the edition (if any) in parentheses; place of publication; and publisher Writer s Web APA Documentation and Formatting.Books List the author's last name first with initial of the first name; year of publication in parentheses; title of book underlined (capitalize only the first word of the title and of any subtitle, and all proper nouns); the edition (if any) in parentheses; place of publication; and publisher.

Omit the words Publishing Company and Book by one author List more than one book by the same author chronologically, earliest edition or work first.Book by two or more authors—List authors as they are listed in the book; use an ampersand to indicate "and A Graduate Student s Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and nbsp.Book by two or more authors—List authors as they are listed in the book; use an ampersand to indicate "and.Child development: A behavioral approach A Graduate Student s Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and nbsp.Child development: A behavioral approach.Adolescent development: Behavioral mimicry should i order astronomy lab report Standard American ASA.Adolescent development: Behavioral mimicry.Textbook or anthology—List cited author, date of the cited author's work, the chapter or section title, the editor's name preceded by "In" and followed by (Ed.), the title of the textbook/anthology, edition number (if appropriate), page numbers on which the cited author's work is found, place of publication, and publisher.Book with a corporate author—List alphabetically with authors; if published by the author of the book, list the publisher as the author.Book with no author or editor—Alphabetize by book title.

Student planning guide for degree programs and portfolios.Saratoga Springs, NY: Empire State College.Periodicals Journal Article—List the author(s), year of publication in parentheses, title of article without quotation marks and with only the first word, proper nouns, and words after colons capitalized, name of the journal underlined and with all major words capitalized, volume number underlined, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by "p.Magazine—List the author(s), year and month of publication (without abbreviations), title of the article without quotation marks and with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized, name of the magazine underlined and with all major words capitalized, volume number, and inclusive page numbers preceded by "p.

Newspaper—List the author(s), year, month, and day of publication (without abbreviations), title of the article with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized, complete name of the newspaper underlined with all major words capitalized, and the section with discontinuous page numbers preceded by "p.Global migration will have widespread impact on society, scholars say.Computer Sources The following information is provided in Harnack, A.Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources .

World Wide Web sites Author's name Title of document "Online" in square brackets URL Patterson, O.Cultural continuity and collective memory.

In The Emory center for myth and ritual in American life Online .Available: /college/MARIAL/ 2001, October 29 .Online document Author's name (last name, first and any middle initials).Where available: URL (or other retrieval information).Book An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet ( e.

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Article in an electronic journal (ejournal) Fine, M.

Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations.

Article in an electronic magazine (ezine) Adler, J Best website to purchase government paper 65 pages / 17875 words single spaced Bluebook Academic.Article in an electronic magazine (ezine) Adler, J.

Available: Newsweek: /nwsrv/issue/20 99a/printed/us/so/so0120 1.APA's Council of Representatives endorses new standards for testing, high school psychology APA style requires that you double-space the entire document, including title page information (see Figure 13.1),   In this section, you will find explanations and examples of how to cite resources that you might use in your   “much of the learning technology innovation in higher education has been focused on K-12 teacher  .APA's Council of Representatives endorses new standards for testing, high school psychology.Available: /exorders/ November 18, 1997APA style requires that you double-space the entire document, including title page information (see Figure 13.1),   In this section, you will find explanations and examples of how to cite resources that you might use in your   “much of the learning technology innovation in higher education has been focused on K-12 teacher  .Available: /exorders/ November 18, 1997 .(Simply include a reference to the date sent and the subject heading) Ward, Neil ([email protected] ).However, if the E-mail source is a consistently retrievable, subscriber-based journal or other text/document on E-mail, include it in the reference page as follows: Funder, D.Judgmental process and content: Commentary of Koehler on base-rate 9 paragraphs .Psycoloquy On-line serial , CD-ROM Beekman, G.Include the following information for an abstract on a CD-ROM: Meyer, A.The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? CD-ROM .Abstract from: Silver Platter File: PsycLIT Item: 80-16351 Software The new Norton guides 4.Whereas you might not always be able to supply all the above information, follow the general APA format for the specific type of source you are citing (journal, article, chapter, book, etc.Include all necessary information to allow the reader to access the source material.Abstract The APA style requires an abstract, an 80 to 120 word summary of the contents of the paper that immediately follows the title page.Be sure to ask your mentor whether or not s/he requires an abstract.The abstract should include the purpose, thesis, and conclusions of your paper and be accurate, self-contained, concise, coherent, and readable.Do not use a paragraph indentation for the abstract.

The abstract requires a separate page and immediately follows the title page.Addiction 2 Abstract Nicotine has been identified as an addictive substance since the mid-nineteenth century, when it was the first substance used to explore and map the synaptic system of receptors.Moreover, the common perception of American society throughout the twentieth century regarded cigarette smoking as a bad "habit" akin to addiction.Yet, despite more than a century of scientific study into and acceptance of nicotine as an addictive substance, American political, medical, scientific, and common societies still carry on a dialogue regarding whether or not nicotine is addictive.

This dialogue is the very foundation of the prevailing negative attitudes toward tobacco.

The scientific and medical communities proclaim the costly outcomes of nicotine addiction while the tobacco industry claims that nicotine is a relatively innocuous product.APA format requires a title page that establishes a running head.

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Ask your Mentor if you need to provide a title page for your paper.