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Equations are numbered in the right hand column 6 Figures and tables are numbered consecutively in accordance with theri appearance in the text Ethics in publishing Declaration of interest All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.
Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1 Guide for authors Rangeland Ecology Management ISSN 1550 nbsp.Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1.
A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind).If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none' .If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'.This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted .This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted.Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records.It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.Submission declaration and verification Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
Changes to authorship Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission.Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor.To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted.
While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended.If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.Copyright Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this).An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions.
Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations.If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information).Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
Author rights As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work.Elsevier supports responsible sharing Role of the funding source You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.Funding body agreements and policies Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies.
Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee.Details of existing agreements are available online.Open access Subscription • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.• No open access publication fee payable by authors.Open access • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.by their research funder or institution.Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses: Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.Access Options and Author Charges IMPORTANT INFORMATION!! Subscription Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries through our access programs ( /access) Page charges - The Society depends on the payment of page charges to offset the cost of publication.00/printed page (excluding relevant taxes where applicable) is required for members and non-members.00/printed page (excluding relevant taxes where applicable) for the first three pages.Open access Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public via the ScienceDirect platform with permitted reuse.An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder.Charges to make articles open access are $2250.
00 (excluding relevant taxes where applicable) for members and $2500.00 (excluding relevant taxes where applicable) non-members.Authors who opt for open access do not pay regular page charges.All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, /fundingbodies.This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY.Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees.If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.
To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes.There is a 10% discount off the open access publication fee for members of the Society for Range Management.Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: /openaccesspricing.Language (usage and editing services) Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).
Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.Submission Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files.The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process.
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, Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication.All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.Suggest Reviewers Referees All authors must suggest a minimum of 3 reviewers on submission, together with their email details 1 Feb 2017 - Preliminary Ecological Appraisal of Proposed Housing Development 5. 424.03336.00009. Rowley Lane, Lepton. February 2017. SLR. 3.0 RESULTS. 3.1 Results of Desk Study. Relevant information available on www.magic.org.uk, and Medium-sized pedunculate oak with double-trunk; 20 metres tall..Suggest Reviewers Referees All authors must suggest a minimum of 3 reviewers on submission, together with their email details.
The suggested reviewers should not be a colleague, a close collaborator or in the same institutional location as the author(s).Use of word processing software It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used.
The text should be in single-column format.Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible.Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article.In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words.However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc.
When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row.If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns.The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier).Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text.See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.Types of Article Research Papers report original findings on all rangeland topics and must be based on a sound conceptual framework and a rigorous test of experimental hypotheses.The experimental design should be clearly described and analyzed with appropriate statistical procedures, and conclusions should be limited to the appropriate inference space., characterize landscape patterns or classify vegetative communities) or that are based on quantitative models are also appropriate.Forum Papers are conceptual in nature and provide an in-depth analysis or summary of contemporary topics or alternative interpretations of contentious issues.Major points must be substantiated with academic literature and not merely reflect opinion.Synthesis Papers combine data and hypotheses from multiple published sources to provide an integrated, comprehensive presentation of a concept or model.Proposals for synthesis papers must be approved by the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission; please submit a brief proposal, including author list, abstract, and outline, to the Editor-in-Chief via email.
Research Notes are short papers reporting experimental research of immediate interest.Notes are intended to foster communication addressing research topics and concepts that may not be fully replicated over time and/or space.Notes are limited to 3000 words (title through literature cited) and a total of three tables, figures, or photos in any combination.Technical Notes are short papers reporting original experimental and analytical techniques, including those that are either conceptual or quantitative.A technical note requires a thorough description of the theoretical base of the instrument or procedure and a comprehensive comparison to existing techniques, procedures, or models.
Notes are limited to 3000 words (title through literature cited) and a total of three tables, figures, or photos in any combination.Formatting Formatting your Submission Page and line numbers must be submitted on all manuscripts.Line numbers can be either sequential throughout the manuscript or repeated on each page.Figures All figures must be referenced in the text in the order that they appear in the manuscript.
If citing a figure from another work, use lower case letters.2007, fig 1) Tables Spell out Table in text and parentheses.If citing a table from another work, use lower case letters.Examples: (Table 1) or (Tables1-3) Article structure Abstract The Abstract constitutes the second page and it is limited to a 300-word maximum.It includes a brief summary of the hypotheses, methods, conclusions, and management implications of the research.
The Abstract must identify the relevance of the manuscript to the rangeland profession.It should include numerical data and a measure of variation, as well as both common and scientific names of organisms studied.The authority for scientific names should be listed.Citations to references, figures, and tables are not to be included in the Abstract.Keywords Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of').
Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.Introduction The Introduction presents the rationale, justification, and hypotheses for the investigation.It should provide an appropriately detailed background for a broad readership to determine the potential contribution of the manuscript.This background information should be supported with peer-reviewed literature.
It is the authors’ responsibility to convey the importance of the work to the broadest potential audience.The Introduction provides the framework for the subsequent Discussion and Implications sections.Methods This section should clearly delineate the study location, experimental design, and specific statistical analyses used.Sufficient detail must be provided to permit the reader to evaluate the proper application of the analyses and to repeat the experiments.Standard methods or techniques should be referenced and modifications of standard techniques should be clearly stated.
Novel analytical methods should be clearly described and referenced.It is the authors’ responsibility to describe the appropriateness and limitations of the experimental design and to acknowledge these constraints while drawing inferences.Results The Results describe all of the relevant findings of the manuscript supported by critical tables and figures.The central tendencies of the data as well as the variability observed should be emphasized.Estimates of variability must accompany statistical analyses in data-based papers.
Data comparisons to other published literature should not be included in this section.Discussion The Discussion should place the research results in the broadest possible scientific or management context.It should highlight the important contributions of the work and relate these contributions to published knowledge.The Discussion should clearly state the importance of the work to rangeland ecology or management.Implications All manuscripts should conclude with a brief section (maximum of two paragraphs) that highlights the broad implications of the research.
The implications can be either scientific or managerial and reference any aspect of the rangeland profession.
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Keywords Subdivision - unnumbered sections Divide your article into clearly defined sections.Each subsection is given a brief heading.Each heading should appear on its own separate line 14 hours ago - Then theirs to raise the face to as your viagra definition viagra definition authorization for business day or government benefits. Essays psychology how to start off the body of a research paper essay about armenian history in armenian essay comparing japanese and european feudalism essay my .Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.
Essential title page information • Title Ecological report Kirklees Council.Essential title page information • Title.Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems Ecological report Kirklees Council.Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems.Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled nbd-dhofar.com.Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled.You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration.Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names.Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication.This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials.Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name.The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address.Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.Graphical abstract Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article.The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership.
Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system.Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more.The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi.Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files.You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.Highlights Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article.Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system.Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Appendices If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc.Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq.Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.
Abbreviations Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article.Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote.
Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.Acknowledgements Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise.List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.
Formatting of funding sources List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grant numbers xxxx, yyyy ; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA grant number zzzz ; and the United States Institutes of Peace grant number aaaa .It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards.When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Units Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI).If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.Units of measure: Abbreviate units of time: s, min, h, d, wk, mo, yr.Use standard SI units of measure: cm, g, ha, kg, km, kV, L, m, mg, mJ, mL, mm, g.Present units of measure with product dots, whether using two units or more.EXAMPLE: g · kg-1 and kg · ha-1 · yr-1 (do not use kg/ha or kg/ha/yr).Use common names for plants and animals whenever possible.
Spell out Genus species upon first mention and provide taxonomic authority for plants (except in titles).
Don’t use parentheses or brackets with just one authority name: Genus species Name.It is also advisable to cite the taxonomy reference used.A sentence may begin with a genus abbreviation.Place a period in nomenclature abbreviations: sp.(subspecies) Math formulae Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images.
Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.In principle, variables are to be presented in italics.Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.
Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).Math and equations: Equations that are presented apart from regular text should be numbered on the right-hand margin using bolded brackets: 6 Footnotes Footnotes should be used sparingly.Number them consecutively throughout the article.Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used.
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Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.
Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.Artwork • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option 2 Mar 2015 - Think about the topic you want to present, for some days or weeks. Again, look at the journal's Guide for Authors, but an ideal length for a manuscript is 25 to 40 pages, double spaced, including essential data only. Here are Never begin a sentence with a numeral: 5 mg of sediment were analysed ….Artwork • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.• Submit each illustration as a separate file.You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.Formats If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.Please do not: • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.
, GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors; • Supply files that are too low in resolution; • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.*Please note that, if necessary, it is possible to embed illustrations in your article.Color artwork Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution.If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.
, ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version.For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article.Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only.Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Illustration services Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article.Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs.Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard.Please visit the website to find out more.
Figure captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption.
Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure.A caption should comprise a brief title ( not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration.Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.Tables Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body.Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.References Citation in text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full.
Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text.If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'.Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.Reference links Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited.In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct.
Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation.When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors.A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online.A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article.
An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela.Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.Web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed.
Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.Web references can be listed separately (e., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List.Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier.Add dataset immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference.The dataset identifier will not appear in your published article.References in a special issue Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products.These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote.Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style.
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If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link: Reference style 1.
Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication; 2 BUSINESS. GUIDE. TO PAPER. REDUCTION. A Step-by-Step Plan to. Save Money by Saving Paper. Including Case Studies of Bank of America, AT&T, 4. • The introduction of email into an organization resulted on average in a 40 percent increase in paper consumption. 5. A worldwide growth of 600 percent in printer..Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication; 2.
Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically).
Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999).' List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary.
More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc.Examples: Reference to a journal publication: Van der Geer, J.The art of writing a scientific article.
Reference to a book: Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G.
How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.
Reference to a website: Cancer Research UK, 1975./aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ (accessed 13 March 2003).Reference to a dataset: dataset Oguro, M.Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions.Journal abbreviations source Video Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research.Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article.This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed.All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content.
In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total.Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect.Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image.These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data.
For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages.Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.Supplementary material Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it.Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online).Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file.
If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file.Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version.Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.Supplementary Data References Online supplemental materials should be cited using a separate numbering system from regular tables and figures (i.To refer readers to the online supplemental material, insert a callout when the material is referenced in the text.Example: …Table S1 (available online at insert URL here ) or … (Table S1; available online at insert URL here ).
The exact URL to the supplemental material will be added during production.There is no additional cost to authors for posting supplemental material online.RESEARCH DATA This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles.Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings.To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript.If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list.Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation.For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.Data linking If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset.
Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.There are different ways to link your datasets to your article.When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system.For more information, visit the database linking page.For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).Mendeley Data This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository.Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data.
Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file.The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.Data in Brief You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data.Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication.
You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript.
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Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.MethodsX You have the option of converting relevant protocols and methods into one or multiple MethodsX articles, a new kind of article that describes the details of customized research methods.
Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work Double space all portions of the paper body. This means you should leave a full line between each line of text in the paper. Footnotes or endnotes should be single spaced, with two spaces between each endnote. PARAGRAPH INDENTATION. Paragraphs in the body of the paper should be indented 5 spaces, or about 1/2 .Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work.
MethodsX, an open access journal, now publishes this information in order to make it searchable, peer reviewed, citable and reproducible.Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript Should my common app essay be double spaced paragraph.Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript.If your research article is accepted, your methods article will automatically be transferred over to MethodsX where it will be editorially reviewed.Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in MethodsX.
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Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.5 years, 8 months ago I have one due Friday and another due next Wednesday, with a four-pager in between, probably due Tuesday (but I haven't gotten the prompt or deadline yet).Once I finish reading all my sources, it'll probably take two hours for a coherent, detailed outline including my thesis statement, topic sentences for each body paragraph, bullet points of the points in each of my paragraphs, and transitions between paragraphs, so I know how the paper will flow.Then I just have to fill in the body paragraphs with the information from my sources more or less.The actual writing after the two hours of outlining can be from six to twenty hours, depending on how many re-reads I have.
But having an outline first generally solves the problem of having to reorganize too much.*sigh* 5 years, 8 months ago The maximum I wrote was six pages and it was double-spaced but it can be dreadful if you don't have a clear thesis and supporting evidence.In your case, you would need a lot of detail.Truth be told, it's not as terrifying as everyone makes it out to be.
A ten page essay can be easy if you put the time and effort in your essay which is true for almost everything out there.When I wrote my essay for my history class in high school, it was dreadful because it was somewhat last minute and the evidence was shaky when trying to support my thesis which the thesis itself was incredibly difficult to support.Luckily my history teacher went easy on me because of the difficulty of my topic.Another essay I wrote was writing about I Am Legend which wasn't hard because I enjoyed the book, I understood the main theme, and I could back it up with evidence.
It was the easiest six pages I ever wrote.
5 years, 8 months ago QUOTE="BossPerson" QUOTE="Pirate700" I don't think I've ever written a 10 page paper.I was a neuroscience major and I had a neuro class that required a 15-20 page term paper (I wrote 18 pages IIRC).My honors thesis also clocked out at around 90 pages.While it's true that science majors don't write nearly as much as humanities majors, it takes a lot more time to write one page of a science paper than it does to write one page of a humanities paper.
I'd say the writing is harder in humanities since we can't spend several sections talking about how we collected data, what data we collected etc.and we have to be careful with every single word we use.5 years, 8 months ago QUOTE="gameguy6700" QUOTE="BossPerson" Goddamn science majors.SolidSnake35 I was a neuroscience major and I had a neuro class that required a 15-20 page term paper (I wrote 18 pages IIRC).
My honors thesis also clocked out at around 90 pages.While it's true that science majors don't write nearly as much as humanities majors, it takes a lot more time to write one page of a science paper than it does to write one page of a humanities paper.I'd say the writing is harder in humanities since we can't spend several sections talking about how we collected data, what data we collected etc.and we have to be careful with every single word we use.
And in my case try to not speak of my subject in such a way as to cause my professor to think me a heretic.:P 5 years, 8 months ago QUOTE="gameguy6700" QUOTE="BossPerson" Goddamn science majors.SolidSnake35 I was a neuroscience major and I had a neuro class that required a 15-20 page term paper (I wrote 18 pages IIRC).My honors thesis also clocked out at around 90 pages.While it's true that science majors don't write nearly as much as humanities majors, it takes a lot more time to write one page of a science paper than it does to write one page of a humanities paper.
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I'd say the writing is harder in humanities since we can't spend several sections talking about how we collected data, what data we collected etc.and we have to be careful with every single word we use.10 pages isnt a whole lot for a science paper what with figures and all that crap in there The maximum I wrote was six pages and it was double-spaced but it can be dreadful if you don't have a clear thesis and supporting evidence. A day. In high school I wrote one around that long about Michelangelo. In college I wrote a business report that long. Both took only one day. Although I don't particularly enjoy .10 pages isnt a whole lot for a science paper what with figures and all that crap in there.
but if its only taking 15 hours for you to write a RESEARCH paper im wondering what the hell kind of research was actually accomplished.
my senior design project outlined a manned mission to a near earth object 16 Jul 2015 - 4.3.1 Refer to table/example/figures in the text. 27. 4.3.2 Locate table/example/figure on a single page. 27. 4.3.3 Numbering tables/examples/figures. 28. 4.3.4 Content of tables/examples/figures. 28. 4.3.5 Formats for tables/examples/figures. 28. 4.4 Justifying text. 29. 4.5 Spacing. 29. 4.6 Indenting the first .my senior design project outlined a manned mission to a near earth object.and was reviewed by a NASA board as part of a design competition.so science majors have to be careful with every single word used.
5 years, 8 months ago QUOTE="gameguy6700" QUOTE="BossPerson" Goddamn science majors.SolidSnake35 I was a neuroscience major and I had a neuro class that required a 15-20 page term paper (I wrote 18 pages IIRC).My honors thesis also clocked out at around 90 pages.While it's true that science majors don't write nearly as much as humanities majors, it takes a lot more time to write one page of a science paper than it does to write one page of a humanities paper.I'd say the writing is harder in humanities since we can't spend several sections talking about how we collected data, what data we collected etc.
and we have to be careful with every single word we use.The term paper I was talking about was purely a review type of paper.That is to say that it was just me going into depth about a very particular topic, surveying the literature on the subject, and then synthesizing it all together.The thesis was largely results and graphs, but about 20 pages of it were still dedicated to discussing background research and conclusions.
You may write more in humanities, but like I said, it takes longer to write each page in a science paper because the material is so much more dense.Also, wording is pretty important in science too.I went through god only knows how many different edits of my thesis, many of which were just subtle changes in phrasing because people actually will pick apart your papers over implications that you may have never even intended to make.MLA Style requires that manuscripts include the following sections, in the following order: Header material (Author name(s), affiliation, submission information, paper title) Body of the paper Cover or title pages are not required for MLA Style Research Papers.If your publisher or instructor requests a cover page, follow the guidelines outlined in their request.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BODY OF THE PAPER ILLUSTRATIONS PAPER FONT or TYPEFACE Use an easily readable "serif" font (such as Palatino, Courier, or Times New Roman) in 12 point size.SPACING BETWEEN SENTENCES In the past, it was recommended that you type two spaces following the end of a sentence.
More and more writers, however, are now typing only one space after the period (or other punctuation at the end of a sentence).
Either one or two spaces is now acceptable (unless your instructor indicates a preference for one or the other); make certain, however, that the spacing between sentences is consistent throughout your paper.PAGE HEADERS 1/2 inch from the top of each page, include a header, with the author's last name, and the page number.HEADER INFORMATION (AUTHOR NAME, INSTRUCTOR, COURSE, DATE) 1 inch from the top of the page, type the author name, instructor, course, and date; double space.PAPER TITLE Double space after typing the header information, and type the title, centered.Capitalize all significant words in the title.
LINE SPACING Double space all portions of the paper body.This means you should leave a full line between each line of text in the paper.Footnotes or endnotes should be single spaced, with two spaces between each endnote.PARAGRAPH INDENTATION Paragraphs in the body of the paper should be indented 5 spaces, or about 1/2 inch.MARGINS The margins for your paper should be uniform on all sides, set to at least 1" or 2.
54 cm on all sides: top, bottom, left and right.Line length for each typed line should be no more than 6.51 cm), and the maximum number of lines of text per page is 27.TEXT ALIGNMENT Set the text alignment to "Left," so that the right edge of the text on the page is uneven.
SECTION HEADINGS Section headers are not necessary for MLA style, but sometimes help your readers follow the organization of a discussion.If you use section headers, use them consistently, and make them reflect the organization of your discussion.QUOTATIONS For short quotations (less than 40 words): A quotation of less than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and incorporated into the sentence.For long quotations (more than 40 words): Longer quotations should be set apart from the surrounding text, without quotation marks, in block format, indented 1 inch (or ten spaces) from the left margin, and double spaced.If the quotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second paragraph about 1/2 inch (5 spaces).
Quotations within a quotation: In block quotations, use double quotation marks to indicate that a phrase is a direct quote.For shorter quotations, use single quotation marks.Material removed from a quotation: Sometimes it is necessary, for brevity, to remove a portion of a paragraph.Use an ellipsis to indicate that a portion of the quotation has been omitted: three periods with spaces before and after when the words have been omitted in the middle of a sentence, four periods (with spaces before and after) when the end of a sentence has been left out.Material inserted into the quotation: Sometimes it is necessary, for clarity, to insert a word into a direct quotation.
Use square brackets like this to highlight words that have been added to the quotation by someone other than the original author.Remember that all quotations, as well as paraphrased text from your research materials must be properly cited.DOCUMENTING SOURCES Recommended method of documenting sources.The recommended method of documenting sources for MLA style research papers uses parenthetical cites in the body of paper, consisting of the author's last name, and the specific page on which the cited material is located.Notice how the parenthetical citations "refer" to an entry in the List of Works Cited.
Sample parenthetical citations with a List of Works Cited.Parenthetical references should include the author(s) last name and the specific page on which the cited material is located, as illustrated in this paragraph: Nothing seemed so certain as the results of the early studies (Smith 445).It was precisely this level of apparent certainty, however, which led to a number of subsequent challenges to the techniques used to process the data (West and Peters 879).There were a number of fairly obvious flaws in the data: consistencies and regularities that seemed most irregular, upon close scrutiny (Data Darning 884; Wills, Ork and Ilis 457).A Study of Certainty: Taking Another Look at the Marriage of Business and Science." New Culture Gazette 2 (2004): 424-460.