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PREFACE This handbook is meant primarily to be a helpful supplement to the Graduate Bulletin and the Guidelines for Graduate Assistants and Fellows, both published by the Graduate School.The Graduate Bulletin contains information on general requirements for all graduate students at this university, while the Guidelines for Graduate Assistants and Fellows contains policies governing Graduate Assistants and University Fellows.
Questions about information in either of those documents can be directed to the Graduate Coordinator or the Dean of the Graduate School Best websites to purchase an english literature thesis proposal for me US Letter Size 144 pages / 39600 words American Custom writing.Questions about information in either of those documents can be directed to the Graduate Coordinator or the Dean of the Graduate School.
The handbook is intended for graduate students already enrolled in the English department.If you are interested in applying for a Certificate, Masters or a Ph How To sday How to Write a Paper or Conference Proposal Abstract nbsp.If you are interested in applying for a Certificate, Masters or a Ph.program, please look at the appropriate sections of the English Department website for information.
Application forms are available from the Graduate School best website to write an english literature thesis proposal British Undergrad. (yrs 1-2) Premium.Application forms are available from the Graduate School.Like the Graduate School, the English Department reserves the right to make changes in the requirements described herein without notice.Every effort will be made, however, to update this document as soon as possible after such changes are made.Acknowledgments The present document is the fourth edition of the handbook.
The first two editions (1990 and 1994) were compiled by a subcommittee of the Graduate Committee chaired by Dr.
We gratefully acknowledge her contribution, and that of all the committee members.Third Edition, Fall 1999, edited by: Joseph Andriano THE GRADUATE SCHOOL Graduate programs in all academic departments of the University are under the jurisdiction of the Graduate School.The Graduate Council, consisting of elected members of the University Graduate Faculty, determines policies of the Graduate School, subject to approval of the President of the University and within the framework authorized by the Board of Trustees for State Colleges and Universities.The Graduate Dean is the chief executive officer.
The Graduate School establishes minimum criteria governing admissions, financial aid, and degree requirements.Individual departments are permitted to impose more stringent requirements.Degrees are conferred by the Graduate School, not by individual departments; hence, students who expect to receive their degrees must satisfy all Graduate School requirements as outlined in the current Graduate Bulletin.Students must give particular attention to Graduate School guidelines governing dissertation committee appointments, format for theses and dissertations, procedures for admission to degree candidacy, and deadlines for graduation.It is the student's responsibility to keep abreast of Graduate School regulations and to adhere to all requirements.
Copies of the following (and other) Graduate School forms are available at the Graduate School site : Application for Use of Transfer Graduate Credit for M.students only Petition for Regular Status The M.Generalist Degrees in English and American Literature Both the M.degrees offered by the UL English Department are generalist degrees in English and American literature.While students acquire a broad expertise in literature, they may also pursue more specialized interests in fields that are particular departmental strengths.The broad base in literature, along with the teaching experience gained by graduate assistants, ensures that those who opt for academic positions will be qualified to teach in several areas in an English Department, while also being able to continue advanced research in their chosen area of expertise.For students who want to pursue their interests in specific areas, our department offers M.degree emphases and PhD degree concentrations so that, in addition to their generalist education, students may choose to focus a portion of their course of study in one area.Concentrations In addition to the traditional M.degree in literature, masters students may pursue an M.with an emphasis in American Culture, English as a Second Language, Folklore, Linguistics, Reading, Creative Writing, Professional Writing, or Rhetoric; and in addition to the traditional Ph.
in literature, doctoral students may pursue a Ph.with a concentration in Creative Writing, Folklore, Linguistics, or Rhetoric.All concentrations require English 500 (Professional Colloquium), English 596 (Research Methods), and one course for the M.
student selected from a list of linguistics, Old English or Middle English courses.(This list also includes literary theory courses for Ph.
--American Culture Students electing an M.
in English with an American Culture emphasis must complete 15 hours of literature courses distributed over five of the seven literary areas (see General M.They must also complete 6-12 hours of graduate credit, which may be taken outside the English Department.
The hours should be selected to complement the English course work; generally, courses in history, political science, art, music, sociology, or anthropology are chosen.Students are advised to choose a committee as soon as possible, preferably within the first semester of graduate study.--Creative Writing The graduate program in English with a primary emphasis in Creative Writing is designed for M.students with a serious interest in writing fiction, poetry, drama, or creative non-fiction, and for Ph.students who may wish to pursue a career in teaching creative writing or modern literature.Both are designed to produce generalists with credentials in creative writing.students must take a minimum of 15 hours in literature courses distributed over five of the seven literary areas and a minimum of 6 hours in 400- or 500-level creative writing workshops.At least half of the courses must be at the 500 and 600 level.
They must also submit a substantial body of creative work (either in one genre or a mix of genres) with a theoretical introduction for thesis credit.students must take a minimum of 48 hours above the baccalaureate in courses at the 400, 500, and 600 levels.Students must take at least 12 hours at the 500 level or above in any three different areas numbered one through seven.A minimum of 9 hours in 400- and 500-level creative writing workshops in at least two different genres must be taken at UL.
In addition, students must complete 24 hours of dissertation credit.To complete dissertation requirements the student must submit a substantial body of creative work with a theoretical introduction.students are required to have a formal reading of their creative work before the academic community prior to graduation, and they must also show they have made a substantial attempt to publish their original work.in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages must complete ENGL 506, ENGL 452, ENGL 561, ENGL 562, and ENGL 563.In addition, the student takes a minimum of 9 additional hours in linguistics of other English courses, and completes a teaching practicum.and abroad recommend a degree in Linguistics or in TESOL, but a secondary concentration and experience are often accepted, both for teaching language skills and for teaching literature.in English with a Folklore concentration is required to take a minimum of 15 hours in literature courses, representing at least five of seven literary periods, and at least 12 hours of folklore courses.Folklore courses may be selected from any appropriate course offered at the graduate level and may be drawn from departments as diverse as art, architecture, history, foreign languages, anthropology, sociology, and others.
Courses from other departments at this university or other universities, however, must be approved by the Folklore Committee and the Graduate Coordinator.
Students pursuing a folklore concentration may elect to write a thesis based upon library research or fieldwork.students in English can, in consultation with the Folklore Committee and the Graduate Coordinator, design a course of study with an emphasis in folklore.student with a folklore emphasis takes the primary exam in Area 12 (Folklore) and writes a dissertation on a folklore topic that may be based on fieldwork.Students interested in folklore studies are encouraged to become familiar with the Folklore Archives, the Center for Louisiana Studies, and the Louisiana Room collections in Dupr Library; all provide rich sources for research.in English with a Linguistics emphasis is designed for students whose primary interests are in linguistics and applications of linguistic theory.
Students who study linguistics at the M.level will have a strong background for Ph.programs in literature, rhetoric, or linguistics.
concentration in linguistics is designed to produce generalists with credentials in linguistics.student interested in studying linguistics is required to take a minimum of 15 hours in literature courses distributed over five of seven literary periods, 12 hours from specified courses in linguistics, and 3 hours selected with the approval of the student's advisor.Students who do not wish to write a thesis for 6 hours credit must take an additional 3 hours selected in consultation with their advisors.level, students can choose to study for a primary or secondary concentration in linguistics.
Those who opt for a primary, are required to complete a minimum of 12 hours 4 different literary areas 1 through 7 at the 500 level, 18 hours in specified courses in linguistics, and 6 additional hours to be approved by the linguistics advisor from a selected list of courses.In addition, students complete 24 hours of dissertation credit.The primary exam of the Comprehensive Examinations is in linguistics; two of the three remaining secondary exams must be in Areas 1-7.student writes a dissertation on a topic dealing with linguistics.with a professional writing concentration is designed primarily for students interested in pursuing a career in technical writing.For the non-thesis option, 33 hours of course work are required; 30 hours of course work plus 6 hours of thesis for the thesis option.requirements, students must take 15 hours of literature courses from five of the seven periods listed below.
Other courses are chosen from technical writing, non-fiction writing, rhetoric and creative writing.In addition, students will prepare a professional portfolio of original work representing their writing skills and areas of specialization.The portfolio must be approved by the advisory committee before the oral examination.—Rhetoric The graduate program in Rhetoric is designed for students whose primary interests are in rhetoric and composition.Most of them plan to pursue a teaching career in composition and literature or to direct writing programs at the secondary or university level.Several curricula are available at the M.
student interested in studying rhetoric is required to take a minimum of 15 hours in literature courses distributed over five of seven literary periods, 12 hours from specified courses in rhetoric, and 3 hours to be chosen with the approval of the student's advisor.Students who wish to write a thesis will take 27 hours of course work (15 in literature and 12 in rhetoric), and write the thesis for 6 hours of credit.level students can choose to study for a primary or a secondary concentration in rhetoric.Those who opt for a primary are required to take 12 hours at the 500 level or above in three different literary areas, 9 hours in specified courses in linguistics and rhetoric, and 15 hours to be selected from a wide variety of courses dealing with language and composition.In addition, students must complete 24 hours of dissertation credit.The primary examination of the Comprehensive Exams is in rhetoric; one secondary is in linguistics or folklore, and the other two secondary exams cover literary periods.student writes a dissertation on a topic dealing with rhetoric or composition theory.students who choose a secondary concentration in rhetoric must take 9 hours of rhetoric courses and successfully complete a secondary Comprehensive Examination in rhetoric.
A reading list useful to students preparing for the Comprehensive Exams is available from members of the rhetoric faculty.in English has both thesis and non-thesis options.The non-thesis option requires a minimum of 33 hours of course work; 24 hours of course work plus 6 hours of thesis are required for the thesis option.All students must take English 596, usually in their first semester.All students must take English 500, a non-credit Professional Colloquium, their first semester.At least half the required courses (a minimum of 15 hours) must be at the 500 or 600 level.
Students must take at least one course at the 400 or 500 level from five of the following literary periods: Area 1: British Literature to c.1500 Area 2: British Literature of the Renaissance Area 3: British Literature of the Restoration and Eighteenth Century Area 4: British Literature of the Nineteenth Century Area 5: British Literature c.1900 to the Present Area 6: American Literature to c.1900 Area 7: American Literature from c.1900 to the Present Students must complete at least one course in linguistics, Old or Middle English.
Graduate Assistants, in addition to the courses listed above, must complete the pedagogy courses, English 501 and 509.English 501 is usually taken in the second semester, 509 in the third and fourth.English 509 hours do not count toward degree requirements.Exam Committee After completing 12 hours of course work, the Masters student will file for candidacy with the Graduate School using an Application for Admission to Candidacy for the Master's Degree form.This form requires the signatures of a chair and at least two other graduate faculty members chosen by the student.It is always a good idea to schedule classes in such a way as to become acquainted with various members of the graduate faculty, thus providing a large pool from which to choose the members of the committee.After submitting the candidacy form, changes are possible if the student wishes to make them later in his or her program.The principal functions of this committee are to compile and grade Component II of the written M.Exams and conduct the oral portion of the exam (see below).
Although students working on the master's degree are advised by the Graduate Coordinator, the committee may also serve as a resource for advisement or counsel throughout the student's graduate program.Since Component II is based largely on the student’s course work, committee members are usually professors who have taught the student in graduate classes.students may choose to write a thesis instead of taking the M.The student who chooses the thesis option will form a thesis committee in place of an M.
The chair of the thesis committee becomes the principal advisor for the candidate, directs the thesis, and conducts the oral exam, which is largely a thesis defense.The student prepares a thesis prospectus in consultation with the director and submits it for approval to the committee.The student must prepare and distribute five copies of the approved prospectus: one to each member of the student's M.
Thesis Committee, one to the department, and one for the student.The Graduate School does not receive a copy of the thesis prospectus.The department suggests that MLA documentation style be used for the thesis.Foreign Language Requirement The foreign language requirement for M.students consists of a reading knowledge of one of the following languages: French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, or Old English.Other languages may be approved by petitioning the Departmental Graduate Appeals Committee.
A reading knowledge of Old English can be demonstrated by completing 4 semester hours at the graduate (500-600) level, within the last six years prior to entering the graduate program in English at UL Lafayette.The coursework may of course be taken while the student is attending UL Lafayette.For the other languages, this requirement may be met in one of the following ways: achieving a scaled score of at least 450 on the Graduate Student Foreign Language Test (a standardized test offered through ETS, taken in Baton Rouge); or passing a translation examination in the target language administered twice each semester by the UL Lafayette Modern Languages Department this may not be possible for some of the above languages ; or passing with a grade of C or better the intermediate level course in the target language (e., at UL Lafayette a 202 course or an equivalent as approved by the Graduate Coordinator) within the last six years prior to entering the graduate program in English at UL.
The course work may of course be taken while the student is attending UL Lafayette.students must satisfy the language requirement prior to taking the Comprehensive Exams.International students cannot use their native language to satisfy the foreign language requirement.
In all cases, the student is responsible for arranging the necessary testing.Arrangements to take the UL Lafayette Modern Languages Department's tests should be made very early in the semester of the anticipated test by contacting the Modern Languages Department.Arrangements to take the GSFLT can be made by contacting the LSU Testing Center, 51 Himes Hall, University Station, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (504-388-1145).Comprehensive Exams Application for Examination During the first month of the fall and spring semesters of each year, the Graduate Coordinator will query all eligible graduate students to determine which of them plan to take the M.Exams at the scheduled time that semester.In writing and by the date indicated in the query, students must indicate their intent.
) Failure to comply with this requirement will normally make students ineligible for examination that semester.Exams are not offered in the summer session.When students are within 6 to 9 hours of completing the 30-36 hours required for the M.
, and have completed their foreign language requirement, they may schedule their exams.Guidelines for Components of the Exam General The M.degree candidates who do not write a thesis.It has two written components comprised of one long (90-minute) essay for each component, and an oral exam of approximately 60 minutes.
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Component I of the written part of the exam, to be designed and read by members of the M.examination committee at large, tests the candidate's ability to analyze a brief literary text that may or may not be known to him or her.Component II consists of one long (90-minute) essay question designed and graded by the individual candidate's chosen three-person examination committee English Graduate Student Handbook Department of English.Component II consists of one long (90-minute) essay question designed and graded by the individual candidate's chosen three-person examination committee.
Component II tests the candidate's ability to synthesize an important corpus of inquiry from his or her course work towards the MA.The concluding oral examination is usually conducted by the same three-person committee that oversees written component 2 Committee on Degrees in History and Literature. Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Harvard University. A Guide to Writing a Senior Thesis in History and Literature. H& College life tends to expand hours. We also realize that some weeks have more time in them for thesis work than others. But if you plan to spend, on average, .
The concluding oral examination is usually conducted by the same three-person committee that oversees written component 2.
The oral examination requires the candidate to respond to questions of both analysis and synthesis Committee on Degrees in History and Literature. Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Harvard University. A Guide to Writing a Senior Thesis in History and Literature. H& College life tends to expand hours. We also realize that some weeks have more time in them for thesis work than others. But if you plan to spend, on average, .The oral examination requires the candidate to respond to questions of both analysis and synthesis.In the case of students writing a thesis, the oral exam will mainly be a defense of the thesis best website to purchase college technical communication thesis Sophomore Business one day.In the case of students writing a thesis, the oral exam will mainly be a defense of the thesis.Written Component I This portion of the examination is compiled with the help of all members of the standing department M.Each committee member, assigned to cover one of the areas of literary study, submits to the committee chairperson a brief literary text from his or her area.Examination Committee posts all the texts one week before the exam, then chooses three texts to present to M.candidates as Component I of the written examination.Candidates have the option to respond by analyzing one text, or comparing and contrasting two texts in a substantial (90-minute) essay.The organization, focus, and development of this analytical essay is the candidates' responsibility and will be a factor in evaluating their performance.They might, for example, discuss the passage(s) in the context of literary or intellectual movements, point out innovations in style or theme, discuss textual problems or controversies, or attempt a thorough explication du texte, with close attention given to language, style, point of view, images, and metaphors, as well as themes.Candidates will be expected in the course of their essay to apply to the text at least three literary and/or theoretical terms from a good, brief, standard handbook of literary terms, such as Abrams's A Glossary of Literary Terms, in the current edition.
(Some examples of eligible terms would be: figures of speech, rhetorical devices, particular genres, theoretical concepts, literary movements, historical concepts, particular topoi or motifs, specific literary forms, prosodic devices, etc.The examinee chooses the terms to be addressed, three or more, especially fitting and illuminating for the examination text, and shows good command of those terms in his or her response to the question.This requirement presupposes familiarity with a handbook that treats basic technical vocabulary of literary study.) Written Component II In this part of the written examination the candidate selects and responds with a substantial (90-minute) essay to any one of three questions presented by the three-person examination committee which the candidate has chosen from the departmental graduate faculty at large.Examiners from Component I, members of the departmental M.
Examination Committee, may also serve as examiners for Component II as the individual candidate may desire.For the Component II and the oral examination (see below), candidates should choose examiners who have guided them in at least one graduate course, who share their special interests, and who are therefore specially qualified to examine them.In Component II of the written examination, candidates respond to questions of synthesis from their M.course work as a whole or from a significant number of their courses.For example, questions in Component II may require candidates to survey an idea or a problem in English or American literature or through several historical periods of literature.Grading Procedures of Written Components Component I of the written examination will be graded anonymously and holistically by three members of the M.Examinations Committee; two of the three must pass it.
Results will then be collated with readers' comments by the chair of the committee and passed on to the Graduate Coordinator.Component II will be graded by the individual student's M.Exam Committee; two of the three must pass it; then the chair of the departmental M.Examinations Committee will tabulate results and readers' comments and forward them to the Graduate Coordinator.Final results will be pass, fail, or pass with distinction.A majority of readers must independently pass an exam with distinction before that result will be given.The Graduate Coordinator will notify the students and the chairs of their respective M.The Oral Exam Students must pass both components of the written examination before scheduling the oral component.Committee will contact the student and all committee members before setting the date and time of the exam.
The one-hour oral examination, which is comprehensive in scope for those not writing a thesis, will be conducted by the student's M.committee, normally the three readers of written Component II (see above).In the oral examination the candidate may be asked (1) to clarify or expand some points from Component 2 of the written examination; and (2) to explore some areas of the candidate's study not covered in the written examination.Candidates who have chosen to write an M.
thesis can expect that thesis to be the major focus of the oral examination.Thesis writers should consult the Graduate School's booklet Guidelines for the Preparation of Theses and Dissertations (2003).are signed at the oral exam; both copies are returned to the Graduate School usually by the student immediately after the completion of the exam.Exams Students who pass one written component and fail the other are not required to retake the passed component.exams should consult with the Graduate Coordinator and with their M.As per Graduate School requirements, no candidate will be permitted to take a comprehensive exam a third time.
Preliminary Advisor Each student entering the doctoral program will be assigned a Preliminary Advisor, who (in addition to the Graduate Coordinator) advises the student until the Dissertation Director and Dissertation Committee are selected.The responsibilities of the Preliminary Advisor will be: 1) to meet with the student at the beginning of his or her first semester and assist him or her in filling out a tentative Plan of Study form (which can be found at the English Department's web site at the bottom of the Ph.Program page), the advisor making sure to recommend courses which will complete the student's requirements and prepare him or her for the Ph.Comprehensive Exams; 2) to consult with the student in the preparation of appeals (e., foreign language requirements) to the Departmental Graduate Appeals Committee; 3) to consult with the student regarding proposals for content of genre and open topic (Area 11) exams and to sign the resultant petition before its submission to the Area 11 Committee (see Guidelines for Area 11 Exams below); 4) to assist the student in any other useful manner, e.
selecting an area of specialization and a dissertation committee.The Preliminary Advisor may also advise the student for course selection each semester and release the student's advising hold on ULink.This advisor may also sign the annual Ph.
Progress Report Form, which must be handed in to the Graduate School every Spring before the student can register for the following semester or summer session.Preliminary Advisor formally end when the student has selected a dissertation committee and submitted the appropriate appointment form to the Graduate Dean for approval.By this time, the student's dissertation director is her/his principal advisor.
Foreign Language Requirements The foreign language requirement for Ph.students may be fulfilled through either option A or option B below: Option A) Achieving a reading knowledge of two languages appropriate to the intended research field of the student, most commonly French, German, Spanish, Italian, Latin, or Old English.
Students may petition to have other languages, including computer programming languages, approved by the Graduate Appeals Committee.Option B) Achieving advanced reading competency in one language appropriate to the intended research field of the student, most commonly French, German, Spanish, Italian, Latin, or Old English.Students may petition to have other languages, including computer programming languages, approved by the Graduate Appeals Committee.A reading knowledge of Old English can be demonstrated by completing 4 semester hours at the graduate (500-600) level, within the last six years prior to entering the graduate program in English at UL Lafayette.The coursework may of course be taken while the student is attending UL Lafayette.
A reading knowledge of other languages can be demonstrated by: achieving a scaled score of at least 450 on the Graduate Student Foreign Language Test (a standardized test offered through ETS, taken in Baton Rouge); or passing a translation examination in the target language administered twice each semester by the UL Lafayette Modern Languages Department this may not be possible for some of the above languages ; or passing with a grade of C or better the intermediate level course in the target language (e., at UL Lafayette a 202 course or an equivalent as approved by the Graduate Coordinator) within the last six years prior to entering the graduate program in English at UL.The course work may of course be taken while the student is attending UL Lafayette.completing successfully the foreign language requirement in an M.
Advanced reading competency in Old English can be demonstrated by passing with a grade of B or better 6 semester hours at the graduate (500-600) level, within the last five years prior to entering the graduate program in English at UL Lafayette.The coursework may of course be taken while the student is attending UL Lafayette.Advanced reading competency in other languages can be demonstrated by: passing an advanced reading test designed and administered by the UL Lafayette Modern Languages Department.This test involves reading, in the target language, an appropriate research article related to the student's field of study and responding, in English , to that article.
This is not a timed test and the student may use a dictionary.The Latin test would necessarily, of course, involve a different format.passing with a grade of B or better 9 semester hours in the target language at the junior or senior (300-400) level, or 6 hours at the graduate (500-600) level, within the last five years prior to entering the graduate program in English at UL Lafayette.These courses may of course be taken while the student is attending UL Lafayette.students must satisfy the language requirement prior to taking the Comprehensive Exams.In all cases, the student is responsible for arranging the necessary testing.Arrangements to take the UL Lafayette Modern Languages Department's tests should be made very early in the semester of the anticipated test by contacting the Modern Languages Department.Arrangements to take the GSFLT can be made by contacting the LSU Testing Center, 51 Himes Hall, University Station, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (504-388-1145).
General Course Requirements All students, regardless of concentration, must meet the following requirements: Complete at least 12 hours of 5/600-level literature courses (from Ph.Exam Areas 1-7 listed below): At least one course must be on American literature, and at least one must be on British literature; At least one course must be on pre-1800 literature; The remaining courses can be any 5/600-level literature courses; Complete English 596 or an approved equivalent; Complete six hours of courses in Old or Middle English or linguistics or literary theory (any combination); Complete 48 hours of course-work beyond the baccalaureate, exclusive of English 596; with at least 21 post-M.
credit hours in this department by the semester before examinations are scheduled.At least half the required courses (a minimum of 24 hours) must be at the 500 or 600 level; As stated in the Graduate Bulletin, all degree requirements must be completed within seven calendar years following admission to a Ph.program; Admission is defined as the first semester the student is enrolled as a Ph.
student at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette; Fulfill the necessary foreign language requirement (see above).students are urged to plan early and continuously, with the help of graduate advisors and the Graduate Coordinator, and to take adequate course work before their written examinations.
They are also urged to familiarize themselves with the format and content of sample examinations (available from the department secretary) in both their primary and secondary areas.Comprehensive Exams Students may opt to sit for their written PhD examinations all in one semester or across two consecutive semesters, excluding the summer semester, after having met all course and language requirements.Exam candidates are expected to complete their primary and secondary exams and a successful oral examination within one calendar year of the date of their first exam attempt.
Copies of previously administered examinations are kept on file in the English Department office and may be requested from the secretary for perusal.They may be photocopied, and originals must be returned to the secretary.The chair of the PhD exam committee will distribute the names of faculty offering PhD comprehensive exams and the areas covered (including area 11 special topics) to both the faculty at large and to all graduate students via departmental listservs and memos one week after the exam assignments have been distributed to graduate faculty examiners.The role of the faculty member in the exam is not to be disclosed.Each examiner is allowed to discuss such issues as exam coverage and evaluation with graduate students in such manner as that faculty member deems professionally appropriate up to the day that examination is given.
No discussion of the exam will take place after the exam has been taken until the official exam results have been released to the examinees by the graduate coordinator.Application for Examination During the first month of the fall and spring semesters of each year, the Graduate Coordinator will query all eligible Ph.students to determine which of them plan to take the Ph.Comprehensive Exams at the scheduled time in that semester, excluding the summer term.In writing and by the date indicated in the query, students must declare the primary and three secondary areas in which they elect to be examined, and the schedule option they have elected to follow (one or two semester examination period).Students electing to take their examinations over a two-semester period must commit to which two examinations will be taken in that term.Students will not be permitted to change their exam declaration after their examination process has begun.Students wishing to be examined in area 11 are reminded that only their previously approved open-topic or genre exams may be tested (see Guidelines for Area 11 Exams).
Failure to comply with these requirements will normally make students ineligible for examinations that semester.Exam Areas Area 1: English Literature to c.1500 Area 2: English Literature of the Renaissance Area 3: English Literature of the Restoration and Eighteenth Century Area 4: British Literature of the Nineteenth Century Area 5: British Literature from c.
1900 to the Present Area 6: American Literature to c.1900 Area 7: American Literature from c.1900 to the Present Area 8: Literary Theory Area 10: Linguistics Area 11b: Children’s Literature Area 11c: Creative Writing Studies Area 11d: Drama Area 11f: Narrative Film Area 11h: Speculative Fiction Rules for Ph.students in all concentrations must pass one primary examination from the above list.A primary concentration is defined as the student's area of primary interest, the area in which the student expects to write a dissertation.students must also pass three five-hour written secondary examinations.
A secondary concentration is defined as a declared area of interest that may (but need not) have some relation to the primary concentration and that the student hopes to teach at the undergraduate level.No area should offer identical primary and secondary exams.All PhD students, regardless of concentration, must complete at least two exams in Areas 1 through 7.For students in literary studies, both British (Areas 1 through 5) and American (Areas 6 & 7) must be represented.students in the Rhetoric concentration must pass a five-hour primary written examination in Area 9, one five-hour secondary written examination in Area 10 or 12, and two five-hour secondary written examinations in Areas 1 through 7.Students preparing to take the Area 9 examination, primary or secondary, must obtain a reading list from the members of the rhetoric faculty.The request for the list should be made at least by the time students notify the Graduate Coordinator of their intention to take the Area 9 examination.students in the Linguistics concentration must take a five-hour primary written examination in Area 10.
students in the Folklore concentration must take a five-hour primary written examination in Area 12.Guidelines for Area 11 Exam Eligible students who wish to take a primary or secondary written examination in Area 11 (Open Topic or Genre) must first consult with their Preliminary Advisor.They must appeal in writing to the Area 11 Committee by the semester before beginning exams.
Area 11 request forms are available on this site, and are also from the English Department Office.
The completed form, which should be delivered to the chair of that committee, must name the four areas in which the student proposes to be examined, signed by at least three faculty members who support the student’s request for the proposed Area 11 exam, and must be co-signed by the Preliminary Advisor.Except as discussed below, the Area 11 Committee will consider individually all requests in Area 11.Students whose proposals are denied by the Area 11 Committee have the right to appeal to the entire graduate faculty.Students wishing to take an exam, either primary or secondary, in a standard Area 11 will not be required to submit a request to the Area 11 committee.Any standard Area 11 will adhere to the above guidelines, as established by faculty in that area.
The Area 11 Committee will maintain the list of standard Area 11s and their associated exam formats offered by the department.The default format for open topic primary Area 11 exams will be that of a take-home exam.Although each request for an Area 11 (Open Topic or Genre) examination will be considered on its own merits, pertinent guidelines should be considered: Topics should not be subsumed within a single literary period (Areas 1 through 7).For example, "Contemporary American Fiction," because limited in focus to Area 7, would not normally meet with Area 11 Exam Committee approval.However, "The American Novel from 1820 to the Present," because it cuts across two periods (Areas 6 and 7), is an example of a topic deemed suitable and one, in fact, that has been approved.
Topics should also avoid too much overlapping.For example, although "African-American Literature" might meet the criterion of cutting across chronological periods, it would not normally be approved if the student requesting it also requested examination in both Area 6 and Area 7.Exam Format The student’s primary exam will follow a format designated by the faculty in the relevant area.Approved formats for the primary exam include timed on-site exams, timed take-home exams, portfolio assessment, an oral exam with reading list (recommended), or a combination of various modes.All secondary exams will follow one of three general templates: Format I requires writers to answer 15 of 20 identifications, 3 of 5 short essays questions, 1 of 3 long essay questions.
Format II requires writers to answer 5 of 8 short essay questions, 1 of 3 long essay questions.Format III requires writers to answer 3 of 5 long essay questions.Descriptions of the primary and secondary exam formats in specific areas are available from the Graduate Coordinator, and students are encouraged to consult with relevant area faculty about the exam in that area.Examination Procedure The PhD exam committee will select three faculty members to prepare each exam.The chair of the PhD exam committee will distribute the names of faculty offering PhD comprehensive exams and the areas covered (including area 11 special topics) to both the faculty at large and to all graduate students via departmental listservs and memos within at least one week after the exam assignments have been distributed to graduate faculty examiners.
The role of the faculty member in the exam is not to be disclosed.Examination Committee specifies the time and place of every exam.
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Exams are normally scheduled to occur once per week for four consecutive weeks in the middle of each Fall and Spring semester.
In the case of timed, written exams, opening the exam packet constitutes the taking of the exam.Failing to show, pick up or submit materials as required by that exam's format or deadlines constitutes a failure on that exam Avatar image for pie-junior I've never written a 10 page research paper, but I have written stories over ten pages in about six to eight hours, sometimes longer. Once I finish reading all my sources, it'll probably take two hours for a coherent, detailed outline including my thesis statement, topic sentences for each body .Failing to show, pick up or submit materials as required by that exam's format or deadlines constitutes a failure on that exam.
Students must notify administrators if they cannot take a designated exam, though exams cannot normally be given again until the next semester.Failing to show for an arranged exam constitutes a failure on that exam 13 Aug 2009 - Honors 490 & 491 Senior Thesis/Project Agreement Sample 26 6. How to Use this Handbook. The following handbook contains general information, important dates and guidelines, handouts on different steps to the Program recommends that the student have at least 21 hours of Honors credit and..Failing to show for an arranged exam constitutes a failure on that exam.An examiner is allowed to discuss such issues as exam coverage and evaluation with graduate students in such manner as that faculty member deems professionally appropriate up to the day that examination is given 13 Aug 2009 - Honors 490 & 491 Senior Thesis/Project Agreement Sample 26 6. How to Use this Handbook. The following handbook contains general information, important dates and guidelines, handouts on different steps to the Program recommends that the student have at least 21 hours of Honors credit and..
An examiner is allowed to discuss such issues as exam coverage and evaluation with graduate students in such manner as that faculty member deems professionally appropriate up to the day that examination is given.
No discussion of the exams will take place after the exams have been administered until the official exam results have been released to the examinees by the graduate coordinator nbd-dhofar.com/thesis/order-a-college-liberal-arts-thesis-premium-us-letter-size-american.No discussion of the exams will take place after the exams have been administered until the official exam results have been released to the examinees by the graduate coordinator.exam process will remain anonymous where possible.Grading Procedures All primary and secondary Ph.
examinations will be graded independently by two departmental graduate faculty readers.Graduate faculty assigned to evaluate a Ph.Comprehensive Exam will independently assign each examination paper the grade of "Pass," "Fail," or "Pass with Distinction" (see below).
Grades will be submitted independently by written ballot.Pass-fail deadlocks are broken by the independent judgment of a third graduate faculty examiner.Examinations Committee reports the results to the Graduate Coordinator, who then notifies the students.
The students may consult with the Graduate Coordinator or the Chair of the Ph.Examinations Committee about the examiners’ comments; however, all examiners' comments remain anonymous.students whose performance on primary and secondary examinations meets the following high standards will be honored with a "pass with distinction" by the English Department: The primary written examination must be independently graded "pass with distinction" either by both first examiners, or, if one of the first two examiners passes the exam with distinction but the other evaluates it only with a pass, a third examiner will evaluate the exam only to determine whether it passes with distinction or not.All secondary examinations must be graded at least "pass" by all first examiners.Any grade of "fail" on any examination will disqualify a student for "pass with distinction.
" Thus any student who has to retake an exam is no longer qualified to "pass with distinction." On all four area examinations, primary and secondary, a majority of total examiners —normally five examiners or more out of eight—must independently grade the student's work "pass with distinction." The student must pass the oral examination.The student who meets all of the above requirements will be awarded a letter for his or her permanent academic file.The letter, co-signed by the Graduate Coordinator and the Department Head, will state that the student has passed his or her Ph.
" A copy of the letter will be given to the student and to his or her dissertation director (if the latter has been chosen at that point).Exams If a student fails any examination it must be repeated, normally during the next semester.In accordance with the policy of the University, no student will be permitted a third opportunity to take an examination.Should a student have to retake one or more examinations, he or she is ineligible for the department's "pass with distinction" (see above).If a student opts for a 2-2 schedule and fails one of the first two tests, then the student will retake the failed exam the following semester, along with the remaining two tests, in the course of the normal testing period.If a student opts for a 2-2 schedule and fails both exams in the first testing period, then the student may opt to retake them in the following semester's testing period, before scheduling any remaining examinations in the subsequent semester.
Oral Comprehensive Examination After passing all four area examinations, all Ph.students must schedule an oral examination to take place before the end of that semester.The three examiners will be appointed by the departmental Ph.
Examination Committee, one from the student's primary area and one each from two of the student's secondary areas.Oral Exams The oral exam will (in contradistinction to the area exams) aim to demonstrate the candidate's capacity to use an oral format to develop and refine ideas in a literary/cultural conversation in ways we expect of professional literary generalists in their roles as teachers and critics; the oral format should permit and encourage ample give and take among all parties to the exam.
The oral exam will stress synthesis of literary, cultural, and professional information.Examiners may use the oral format to review weaknesses or consider omissions in the area exams.Examiners may raise "meta" kinds of questions--critical or theoretical concerns aimed at opening the kind of discussion appropriate for the exam.Examiners may introduce a focus on pedagogical issues related to the candidate's interests.The above recommendations for form and content are not intended to be exhaustive; the committee should discuss its approach in advance of the exam.
The Graduate Coordinator will be prepared to give documentation of the student's primary and secondary examinations to the student and other committee members before the oral exam.The chair should request documentation of the exams and graders' comments that are deemed appropriate for the oral examination.The committee chair should expect to receive a ballot from the Graduate Coordinator and return it to the Graduate Coordinator with the signatures of the committee after the student completes the oral exam.students should apply to the Graduate School for admission to candidacy immediately after the successful completion of the Oral Comprehensive Exam; i., before the end of the semester in which they passed their exams (The Ph.
candidacy form is available at the Graduate School site).If this is not possible, they should apply for candidacy at the very beginning of the following semester.After successful completion of the form, the University Graduate Council advances the student to Ph.
Dissertation Committee The dissertation committee oversees the writing of the dissertation and conducts the defense.Because this is an extremely important committee, members should be selected carefully for their scholarly expertise.The committee must have a minimum of three members: the chair (director) and two additional readers of the dissertation, all of whom must be members of the UL Graduate Faculty.Another professor not on the graduate faculty may serve on the committee, which may have as many as five members, including a professor from another university.
It is always a good idea to schedule classes in such a way as to become acquainted with various members of the graduate faculty, thus providing a large pool from which to choose the members of the committee.The most important member of the committee is the director or major professor.This faculty member must be approached first.The remaining members of the committee will then be selected in consultation with the major professor.Generally speaking, the committee members should either teach courses in the student's field of specialization or have some interest in it, but exceptions to this practice can be made.
It is in the student's best interest to compile a short list of the faculty members who might serve on the committee for submission to the major professor, who can then make suggestions that may help in the final selection.Dissertation Prospectus Requirements The dissertation prospectus marks the step following a candidate’s successful completion of the Ph.An approved dissertation prospectus must include: a title page that conforms to the Graduate School model; a second page that contains the names and signatures of the dissertation committee members with their appropriate titles, as well as the name of the Dean of the Graduate School, who is a member of all dissertation committees.
On this page, the name of the dissertation director should be listed first, followed by that of the co-director if there is one; the remaining members of the committee should be listed in alphabetical order; the Dean of the Graduate School is listed last; the prospectus itself; a working bibliography, the guidelines of which will be set by the candidate's dissertation committee.The candidate needs to prepare six copies of the approved prospectus.Each member of the dissertation committee should receive a copy; one copy is placed on file with the department; and the original, with all the signatures, goes to the Graduate School.For samples of the required prospectus formatting, please see the graduate student handbook.
concentrations, the content portion of the prospectus should provide background for the topic and identify the research question, the tentative thesis, or hypothesis.The prospectus should reflect a sense of the relevant materials in the field and the nature of the original contribution the study will make to existing scholarship.It should then outline the approach or method that will be employed in the dissertation and the organizational pattern the finished product will likely follow.
Throughout the prospectus and in the working bibliography, the candidate must demonstrate familiarity with the topic and awareness of current research.Therefore, a review of periodical literature, Dissertation Abstracts, and major books in the field is in order to insure that the dissertation will not duplicate other research.Candidates should consult with their dissertation director about all aspects of the prospectus including how comprehensive a bibliography is expected.Recommended timeline The department strongly encourages the Ph.comprehensive exams, to follow this process and timeline in drafting and submitting the dissertation prospectus.Early in the semester following the completion of his/her Ph.comprehensive exams, and after consulting closely with the dissertation director, the candidate meets with his/her dissertation committee.At the meeting, the conversation focuses on the scope of the dissertation, its viability as a project within the given discipline(s) or field(s), potential structuring principles, and any advice about writing the prospectus the committee is willing to provide.The candidate may elect to submit prior to this meeting a draft of the prospectus for the committee members’ consideration in order to facilitate discussion at this meeting.In early March or October, the candidate presents the prospectus at a second meeting with his/her dissertation committee (candidates are urged to circulate at least one draft of the prospectus amongst dissertation committee members for feedback before this presentation).At this oral presentation, the candidate will describe the dissertation as a project, touching on issues of content, methodology, organization, or concerns committee members have already articulated (approximately 20 minutes).
The presentation may be open to the public, depending on the preference of the candidate and his/her director.At the end of the presentation, the dissertation committee members may pose questions of the candidate.A dissertation committee may choose to use this presentation as the moment at which committee members officially approve the prospectus (by signing the signature page).A dissertation committee may require the candidate to make revisions as a condition of prospectus approval.Sample Dissertation Prospectus—Literature Sample Disssertation Prospectus—Renaissance Dissertation Defense When a draft of the dissertation has been completed to the dissertation committee's satisfaction, all members agreeing that the candidate is ready to defend, the director will contact the candidate, all committee members, and the outside observer to set the date and time of the defense.
Once the date is set, the director makes a public announcement of the defense, e.When the candidate is ready to prepare the final draft of the dissertation, he or she should consult the Graduate School's Guidelines for the Preparation of Theses and Dissertations.
Dissertation Printing Services There are a variety of ways to print your dissertation.
The University’s Printing Services office is located on the first floor of Stephens Hall.You must bring your own paper and the charge is 10 cents per page.You may also choose to go to local businesses (i.Kinko’s, Office Depot) to have your dissertation printed.
Do not, under any circumstance, print your dissertation on the staff computers in Room 214.students should consult with their faculty directors to determine if, and in what format, a director wants a final copy of the dissertation.Be sure to check with the graduate school for the approved paper type that must be used when printing your dissertation.
You can find the graduate school’s guidelines for theses and dissertations, checklists, and copyright information at their site.You are also eligible to apply for GSO funds up to $100 for dissertation expenses.This will help defray paper and printing costs.You can find more information on GSO funds at the GSO funding page.597 or 598) The intent of an individual directed study course is to enable the graduate student to undertake an intensive study of a specific subject or general area or theme that is otherwise unavailable to him or her.Courses may not be available because of infrequency of offerings, cancellation, or genuine conflicts of schedule that prevent registration.The individual study course must have genuine relevance to the English graduate program of study.The student must (1) secure preliminary (oral) agreement of a professor to direct the individual study course, (2) obtain the designated proposal form from the English Department, (3) submit the completed form to the professor for his/her approval signature.Since an individual study course constitutes an overload for the director, no professor is obligated to direct one, nor does the professor's approval assure registration in the course.
The student then (4) obtains the signatures of the Graduate Coordinator and the Chair of the English Graduate Committee.Their signatures do not automatically allow a student's registration in an individual study course either.The student then (5) secures the signature of the Department Head who, after review of the proposal, allows or disallows registration in the course.Students should be aware of the following restrictions: The requirements (in primary and secondary reading, in research and writing) of the individual study course must be at least equal to the requirements of a graduate catalog course.The student is required to meet periodically with the director (ordinarily an hour or more once a week).
A student may take no more than two individual study courses in the pursuit of any graduate degree.A professor may direct an individual study course only in his/her designated area(s) of specialization.ACADEMIC STANDING AND SATISFACTORY PROGRESS Graduate Students are expected to maintain good academic standing and make satisfactory progress toward their declared degree objective.The Graduate School determines academic standing using both individual semester grades and the cumulative graduate grade point average.MA students may apply no more than three semester hours with a grade of C toward the fulfillment of degree requirements.
PhD students may not apply any courses with a grade of C toward their degrees.Students who receive a grade of C or lower in a graduate course will be required to meet with the Graduate Coordinator and Major Professor to discuss their progress and performance in the program.A second grade of C or lower in an English graduate course will be grounds for immediate dismissal from the program.The Graduate School uses all grades received in graduate courses at this university in computing official grade point averages for graduate students.MA and PhD students must maintain a cumulative GPA of 3.
Students whose cumulative averages fall below 3.0 for two consecutive semesters will be dismissed from the program.Note: The English Department does not allow the practice of re-taking a course to replace a higher grade.Courses that are repeatable for credit may be repeated, but each will be considered a separate course for the purposes of calculating the student’s GPA.
The English Department has established a general timeline by which satisfactory progress may be judged.Barring illness or other serious issues that might interfere with studies, the Department expects students to reach major checkpoints within the allotted period of time.Failure to do so will be considered sufficient cause for the nonrenewal of funding and/or dismissal from the program.Any student unable to pass a comprehensive exam or defend a thesis in a timely manner may be dismissed from the program.The Graduate Coordinator, after consulting with the student's Major Professor and informing the student, will bring the name of any student recommended for dismissal before the Graduate Appeals Committee for approval.
Timeline Full time MA students are expected to sit for exams or defend their thesis before the end of their 4th semester.Full time PhD students entering the program directly, without any transfer hours, are expected to complete the comprehensive exams before the end of the sixth semester, the prospectus before the end of the seventh semester, and defend their dissertation within the tenth semester.Students who enter the PhD program with an MA or MFA should proceed one year ahead of this schedule.APPEALS All appeals for waiver/exception/substitution of any English Department or Graduate School requirement must be submitted in writing along with all relevant evidence (e.
) to the departmental Graduate Appeals Committee.Appeals should be made early in the semester, if possible.All appeals are to be addressed to the English Department Graduate Appeals Committee and delivered to the Graduate Coordinator, who presents the request to the committee.Appeals of English Department requirements are decided by the departmental appeals committee alone, while appeals of Graduate School or university requirements must first be submitted to the English Department appeals committee and then (after the departmental committee has voted on the appeal) submitted to the Appeals Committee of the Graduate Council through the Dean of the Graduate School.
Click here for a sample letter of appeal.TRANSFER OF CREDIT The Graduate School stipulates rules for transfer of graduate credit in the Graduate Bulletin.Its section entitled "General Regulations," section V (Course and Credit Regulations), subsection D (Transfer of Credit) outlines all the policies for transfer of credit which the Graduate School will accept and approve.The transfer of graduate courses for credit should be completed during the student's first semester.students, the Graduate School limit is twelve hours of transferred credit, provided this number does not exceed one third of the total course credits; for Ph.students, no specified limit, except that all Ph.students must take at least 21 post-MA hours in this department.) Knowledge of approved transfer credits will enable students and their advisors to plan the course of future study more effectively.When applying for transfer credit, the M.student should fill out the Transfer of Credit form and take it with a transcript and if possible a copy of the syllabus for the course(s) to the Graduate Coordinator for evaluation.
The course(s) must be acceptable to the English Department and the Graduate School.
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Furthermore, the courses are still subject to the Graduate School time limitation of six years.students use the Plan of Study form for transfer credit, in consultation with the Graduate Coordinator and the Preliminary Advisor.
Orientations Before the fall semester begins, the Graduate School conducts a two-day orientation for Graduate Assistants Best websites to get a college thesis proposal english literature AMA American Master's Platinum.Orientations Before the fall semester begins, the Graduate School conducts a two-day orientation for Graduate Assistants.
This orientation presents general information regarding the University and its graduate programs.At this orientation, GAs fill out paperwork for the business office (failure to do so at this point may result in late paychecks) and receive a brochure entitled Guidelines for Graduate Assistants.The brochure includes important general information about duties and responsibilities, parking, library privileges, the ombudsman, the GSO, academic honesty, sexual harassment, etc.All GAs should obtain and read this brochure.
In addition to the University's orientation for GAs, before the opening of the fall semester, the English Department holds special sessions designed to inform entering GAs about departmental traditions, policies, and regulations.The Graduate Coordinator explains some of the practical aspects of registration and scheduling, and entertains questions regarding the graduate program.The Director of First-Year Writing, the Director of the Writing Center, and the Assistant Department Head explain various aspects of the department.The directors also discuss effective ways to deal with students and describe the support programs offered by the University and the English Department, such as those available from the Graduate Student Organization.Other experienced faculty members discuss how to deal with attendance records, paper grading, student conferences, and personal absences.
In addition, they provide practical information about a variety of other topics, including library privileges, office maintenance, and paycheck policies.Not the least important aspect of the orientation sessions is that they give GAs an opportunity to meet the faculty in an informal setting.The social reception that brings the sessions to a close allows the graduate students to visit with the professors with whom they will be studying and working over the next few years.Teaching and Tutoring Duties Due to a mandate from our accrediting agency, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), graduate students who receive an assistantship at UL Lafayette may not actually teach until they have earned 18 credit hours of graduate-level course work in English.The teaching load for GAs is two courses per semester.
The usual policy has been as follows: the first course GAs teach is either ENGL 90 (Developmental English) or ENGL 101 (Introduction to Academic Writing).By their third or fourth semester of teaching, they may also teach ENGL 102 (Writing & Research about Culture).assistants often teach a sophomore survey course (e.
, ENGL 205 or 206), either during the semester of their comprehensives or during the semester prior to them.students usually substitute Advanced Writing (ENGL 360) for the sophomore survey course.
Experienced GAs in Creative Writing often get to teach ENGL 223 (Introduction to Creative Writing).GAs who enroll in the summer session do not usually teach (requests for the few available positions are handled on a rotation basis by the department's course scheduler), but may earn their fee waiver for a six-hour load by working for the department (e.as a research assistant) eight hours per week.GAs with less than the requisite 18 hours usually earn their stipends by tutoring in the Writing Center.
The work load is 20 contact hours per week.Tutors are not responsible for grading papers, nor are they given any work outside the writing center.Details of policies and procedures concerning tutoring are covered during the English Department's GA Orientation, when the Writing Center Director and the Director of First-Year Writing meet with all new GAs to explain this system.In addition to the above course loads and required courses, GAs should also be aware of the following information: Information for Freshman English Instructors All beginning teachers should read carefully the handout entitled Information for Freshman English Instructors, available from the department's secretary or the Director of First-Year Writing.The handout includes information on the diagnostic essay to be written by freshmen on the first day of class.
Procedures for checking the rosters are also explained on this handout.More information about the policies, goals, grading standards, and outcomes for ENGL 101 and 102 may be found in The Freshman Guide to Composition, a book published by the department and required of all students taking these two courses.GAs can get a desk copy from the department's secretary.Included in this book is important information regarding plagiarism policies: 101 and 102 students are required to sign a Plagiarism Contract, as described in the Guide.They must also sign a statement from this book stating that they have met the prerequisites for the course.
Instructors are required to turn signed contracts from all their students in to the English office each semester.Departmental and Individual Course Syllabi GAs should obtain the departmental syllabi for the classes they will be teaching from the department's secretary or from the Director of First-Year Writing.In addition to the departmental syllabus, GAs must compose their own syllabus following departmental guidelines and university policies for absenteeism and grading.A copy must be submitted to the Director of First-Year Writing for review.By the end of the first week of classes, all instructors are required to submit their syllabi to the English department, which keeps them on file.
Policy Sheets Every instructor must provide for students a policy sheet (usually part of the syllabus).The University requires that all instructors hand out to their students (or distribute to them through Moodle) a written explanation of their policies concerning absences, make-up work, late papers, and grading procedures.In ENGL 90 and 101, instructors should distribute their policy sheets on the second day of class (the first is devoted to the diagnostic essay--see the handout Information for Freshman English Instructors).Excessive Absences Instructors should determine their policy on absences, distribute copies of it at the beginning of each semester, and keep attendance records.The instructor is responsible for determining whether or not an absence is excused; however, if the instructor feels that the student may be giving incorrect or false information, he or she may refer the student to the Dean of Student Personnel for possible disciplinary action.
In a MWF class 4-6 unexcused absences or in a TR class 3-4 are generally considered excessive.(Note that the instructor's definition of excessive must not be less than the University's minimum of 10% of the total class meetings.) Many instructors have a policy of lowering the final grade for this number of cuts.If a student cuts 7 or more times in a MWF, 5 or more in a TR, he/she may fail the course, but note the following exception.Officially Excused Absences Absences because of officially-sanctioned University events (e.
, field trips, athletic events) are considered excused.Students should provide written proof of their participation in these events.Policy sheets should explicitly state that students are nonetheless responsible for both the work missed and the work due.Make-Up Work and Late Papers Allowing students to make up work or hand in late papers is at the descretion of the instructor.
Most instructors allow make-up work and late papers only if the student has been ill and/or has an acceptable excuse.Final Essay and Final Grade for ENGL 90, 101, and 102 Policy sheets for ENGL 90, 101, and 102 should remind students that a final grade of C or better is required to advance to the next level English class.Further, students cannot earn a C or better in the course without having earned a C or better on the final essay.Office Hours, Files, and Grade Books Once GAs are teaching, they must post and keep regular office hours.The minimum number of office hours is two hours per class per week (i.
They need also to keep files of freshman papers and accurate records of student grades.The department's secretary collects grade books from GAs at the end of every semester, and GAs get them back after the break.All grade books and all files of freshman papers a year or less old are to be left with the English Department when the GA leaves the program.
Textbook Selection and Desk Copies All instructors of freshman courses fill out a Textbook Selection Sheet.Beginning teachers must use the standard texts adopted for these courses.Desk copies of the texts are available from the secretary who handles Freshman English.assistants teaching sophomore survey courses may obtain desk copies of the textbook from the Freshman English secretary.students can complete their degree in two years and a summer, the normal term for an M.students may retain their assistantships for four years.All GAs, however, must make satisfactory progress toward their respective degrees and perform their duties in a responsible manner in order to retain their assistantships.
Satisfactory progress toward the degree is generally defined as the successful completion of 18 hours of graduate course work with a grade of B or above in the first year of the M.program (including pedagogical courses) and a minimum of 12 hours a year thereafter.Special Courses for Graduate Assistants M.Graduate Assistants are required to take ENGL 509, College English Practicum, for two semesters.GAs with little or no teaching experience are encouraged to take this course for at least one semester when they begin teaching.The department also sometimes requires a GA who is having problems teaching to take ENGL 509.
Another pedagogy course, ENGL 501, Teaching College English, is required for M.A Graduate Assistants and is highly recommended for all GAs; it includes valuable information on professional practices, ethics, and teaching techniques, as well as supervised teaching and observation.AWARDS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS In addition to the teaching awards mentioned above, there are several other competitive awards available for graduate students: The Shelley Martin Award for the Best Graduate Seminar Paper--awarded annually.See the Graduate Coordinator for details.The Darrell Bourque Award--for the most outstanding paper presented at the Louisiana Conference on Literature, Language, and Culture.
The Florence Sanders Jones English Endowment Scholarship--a one-year scholarship awarded to one or more outstanding graduate students each year.Applicants must be enrolled in the English graduate program (preferably full time), with a strong academic record and a good record of extracurricular activities (publications, conference participation, academic and community service).Financial need is considered by the selection committee.See the Graduate Coordinator for an application.Teaching Awards--Each spring the Bernice and Robert M.
Webb Awards for Excellence in Teaching are presented respectively to an outstanding beginning teacher and an outstanding experienced teacher.To be considered for this award, graduate students must compile a teaching portfolio that includes a statement of teaching philosophy.Dupre Library Information regarding Dupre Library is available at their web site and in the Graduate School booklet, Guidelines for Graduate Assistants.Both publications contain information about borrowing, interlibrary loan, study carrels, reserve reading, library tours, and all library facilities.The following information is only a supplement to that found in these two publications.
Databases Dupre Library subscribes to a number of online databases, such as Academic Search Premier and JSTOR.Students can print up to 50 pages a day on site at no cost.Students can access research databases from off campus by supplying a UCS CLID (campus logon ID) and UCS password, when prompted.Extended Loan Privileges Books circulate normally for a period of three weeks; however, graduate assistants or graduate students working on their thesis or dissertation or with a professor on a project may request from Circulation extended loan privileges for a semester or an intersession.Request forms are available at Circulation.
Books checked out under extended loan are subject to recall.Personal Reserve, Hold, Trace If students need a book not on the shelf, they should check with Circulation and have the book, if checked out, put on hold or personal reserve.If the book is not checked out, they may request that a trace be put on it.In either case, the library will notify them when the book is returned or located.Tours An award of $500 is presented annually for the outstanding scholarly paper utilizing the primary source materials held in the special collections of the library.
There are no topic restrictions, but papers must be typed, double spaced, and unbound, and must adhere to the style manual of the author's discipline (e.Papers are judged by a panel and must be submitted to the Director's Office, Dupre 306, by an announced deadline (usually the first Friday in March).
Students may call 482-5702 to verify the deadline.
Further information is available from the Archives and Special Collections Department in Dupre.Lafayette Parish Library The Lafayette Parish Public Library's main branch is at the corner of W.Congress and Lafayette Streets in downtown Lafayette (261-5775).There is also a Southside branch in Time Plaza on Johnston St., and several other branches in neighboring communities.
The library allows UL Lafayette students to check out books, CDs, DVDs, etc.if they present a valid driver's license from any state or a current UL Lafayette ID, along with their parents' or spouse's name, address, and place of employment.See the library's web site for more information.The Graduate Student Organization The Graduate Student Organization is the campus-wide voice of the UL Lafayette graduate students.Its officers are voting members of the Graduate Council, Masters Fellowship Committee, and the Graduate Council Appeals Committee.
These officers (chair, vice-chair, and secretary/treasurer) are elected by GSO representatives.Each academic department with a graduate program elects a graduate student representative who is required to attend one meeting per month.The GSO is funded entirely by UL Lafayette graduate students.The GSO fee is part of the total fees a graduate student pays each fall and spring semester.The GSO helps to finance presentations of papers at conferences and thesis/dissertation research.
Presentations can include the reading of original poems and/or short stories or staging of plays at recognized conferences.Thesis/dissertation research has included travel expenses to visit libraries that have non-lendable holdings pertinent to thesis/dissertation research.The GSO has also purchased copies of dissertations from universities unwilling to lend them.These copies are then given to Dupre Library for all students and faculty to use.GSO funding policies continually change.
Representatives can provide information regarding current policies and procedures.Audiovisual Equipment; SMART classrooms Audiovisual equipment, including VCRs, DVD players, film projectors, overhead projectors, computer carts, etc., is available for classroom use from HLG 214 and from the Media Center in Dupre 335 (482-6780).The departmental checkout system is fully explained during the GA Orientation.Graduate Assistants can also request to teach certain classes in the several SMART classrooms in Griffin Hall.
These rooms are equipped with computers, document cameras, VCRs and DVD players, all in a console connected to an LCD projector.Instructors must attend an orientation before they can teach in these rooms.STANDING COMMITTEES The following is a list of English Department standing committees and the English Department Graduate Committee's standing subcommittees along with their functions.Departmental committees on which there is or can be graduate student representation are indicated by an asterisk.The English Department Graduate Committee itself has such graduate student representation.
English Department Committees Adjunct Faculty - Discusses concerns of adjunct faculty and represents those concerns to the department.Advanced Writing - supports present courses in advanced composition (ENGL 355, 360) through review of new texts and current pedagogy; makes such information available to teaching staff; recommends ways of improving advanced writing.Awards and Recognitions - Organizes and oversees awards for undergraduate and graduate students in English and plans the department's end-of-year student award ceremony.*Creative Writing - designs the curriculum of the Ph.Creative Writing concentration and the M.emphasis in Creative Writing; coordinates such extra-curricular activities as the Deep South Festival of Writers, the Thursday Night Reading Series, and publication of The Southwestern Review.*Diversity Committee - discusses how the department’s curriculum and instruction addresses questions of diversity and difference as well as diversity in recruitment of students and faculty.*English Majors - Discusses purpose, goals, missions, and future of the English major.
*English-Education Majors - performs same duties for English-Education majors as English Majors Committee does.Film Committee - designs the curriculum of the undergraduate minor in Film and related activites.Flora Levy Foundation Committee - invites speakers for the annual Flora Levy lecture.*Freshman English - plans, develops, and carries out all aspects of the freshman English program.
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*Folklore - assists in planning, coordinating, and supervising folklore offerings and opportunities within the department; consults with faculty from other departments on campus in order to insure coherence in folklore study on campus.
*Graduate Committee - supervises and makes policies for graduate education in English.Two graduate student representatives are elected annually 10 Jun 2013 - Buy a copy of Strunk and White's Elements of Style. Also, William Zinsser's On Writing. Well. Read them again and again and again. • Keep it simple. Think of your reader as being your college roommate who majored in English literature. Assume he has never taken an economics course, or if he did, .Two graduate student representatives are elected annually.
Hospitality - arranges departmental social occasions.
*Linguistics - designs the curriculum of the Ph Master's thesis. What distinguishes a senior thesis from a research paper is the necessity for the student to go beyond what others have written and to think critically, 6. The Honors Thesis Proposal. Once the thesis topic and the primary and secondary advisors are selected, the student must submit a 1-2 page thesis .
*Linguistics - designs the curriculum of the Ph.
Linguistics primary and secondary concentrations and the M Master's thesis. What distinguishes a senior thesis from a research paper is the necessity for the student to go beyond what others have written and to think critically, 6. The Honors Thesis Proposal. Once the thesis topic and the primary and secondary advisors are selected, the student must submit a 1-2 page thesis .Linguistics primary and secondary concentrations and the M.*Literary Rally - carries out the duties of the English section of the annual high school competition held each spring.
Personnel Committee - elected committee that acts in an advisory capacity to the Department Head on matters of hiring, promotion, and tenure nbd-dhofar.com/paper/where-to-purchase-an-anthropology-paper-24-hours-platinum-business-high-quality.Personnel Committee - elected committee that acts in an advisory capacity to the Department Head on matters of hiring, promotion, and tenure.Retreat Committee - organizes the biennial departmental retreat.*Rhetoric - designs the curriculum of the Ph.Rhetoric primary and secondary concentrations and the M.
emphasis in Rhetoric; coordinates such extra-curricular activities as the Rhetoric Reading Group and the annual Rhetoric Symposium.*Sigma Tau Delta - supports and advises the honor society for English majors.Sophomore English - drafts guidelines and selects default texts for the 200-level literature courses.*Symposium Committee - organizes department symposiums.
Technical Writing - supports present offerings (ENGL 365, 463, 464, and 465) through review of new texts and current pedagogy; makes such information available to teaching staff; recommends ways of improving program.Technology and Distance Learning - recommends and carries out policies related to the use of departmental computers and online courses.Undergraduate Curriculum Committee - reviews proposals for course changes, additions, deletions, descriptions, etc.*Website Committee - Maintains the department's web site.Women's Studies - oversees the undergraduate minor in Women's Studies and activities in Women's Studies at the graduate and undergraduate level.
English Department Graduate Committee Subcommittees Area 11 Committee - evaluates proposals for Area 11 exams; provides advice to students applying for these exams.Committee on Graduate Curriculum and Requirements - reviews the department's graduate-level courses and graduate degree requirements.Departmental Graduate Appeals Committee - considers requests from graduate students seeking exemption from a departmental requirement.Graduate Applications Committee - reviews applications and ranks assistantship applicants.Graduate Course Offerings Committee - establishes rotation of graduate courses and faculty members offering them.
Graduate Placement Committee - assists students in their job searches.Graduate School Speaker Fund Committee *Judiciary Committee - hears cases of GAs charged with serious neglect of assistantship responsibilities.Examinations Committee - solicits questions, prepares exams, posts literary passages seven days prior to exam, and compiles results.
Examinations Committee - solicits questions, prepares exams, and compiles results.*Recruitment - develops and implements plans for recruiting graduate students.) Screening Committee for Continuing Assistantships - reviews the work of GAs who wish to continue in the program on assistantship.THE GRADUATE FACULTY Faculty members at UL Lafayette provide a friendly, supportive environment in which informal contact is encouraged.The English Graduate Faculty consists of approximately twenty-five to thirty-five members with various areas of expertise, including the traditional periods of English and American Literature, as well as creative writing, rhetoric, linguistics, folklore, film, children's literature, women's studies, and others.Many faculty members have received national and international recognition for their distinguished scholarship and for their creative writing.UL Lafayette is proud to have John McNally as Writer-in-Residence, and Ernest J.
See the English Department Web Site for information about Graduate Faculty and their specializations.BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTSPosted on (Tuesday Post Category: Strategizing Your Success in Academia) Tuesdays I will occasionally feature “How-To(sday)” posts,shortguides to certain genres of academic writing.Today we look at the paper/conference proposal abstract. This is a critical genre of writing for scholars in the humanities and social sciences. Usually between 200 and 500 words long, it is a short abstract that describes research/a talk/a journal article that you are GOING to write. This is in contrast to the abstract of the research/dissertation/article that you have already written.
Mastering the paper abstract is one of the most important skills you can acquire while still a graduate student.
Learn the tricks of the paper abstract and you have the ticket in hand to a steady ride of conference and publishing opportunities. These are the conferences and publications that a few years down the line, set your c.apart from your peers, and land you that job.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The paper abstract is highly formulaic.
It needs to show the following: 1) big picture problem or topic widely debated in your field.4) the specific material that you examine in the paper.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Each of these six elements is mostly likely contained in a single sentence.Sentence 1:Big picture topic that is being intensively debated in your field/fields, possibly with reference to scholars (“The question of xxx has been widely debated in xxx field, with scholars such as xxx and xx arguingxxx ”).Sentence 2:Gap in the literature on this topic. This GAP IN KNOWLEDGE is very, very bad, and detrimental to the welfare of all right thinking people.
This is the key sentence of the abstract.(“However, these works/articles/arguments/perspectives have not adequately addressed the issue of xxxx.Sentence 3:Your project fills this gap (“My paper addresses the issue of xx with special attention to xxx”).Sentence 4+ (length here depends on your total word allowance, and more sentences may be possible):The specific material that you are examining–your data, your texts, etc.
( “Specifically, in my project, I will be looking at xxx and xxx, in order to show xxxx. I will discuss xx and xx, and juxtapose them against xx and xx, in order to reveal the previously misunderstood connections between xx and xx.”) Sentence 5:Your main argument and contribution, concisely and clearly stated.(“I argue that…”) Sentence 6:Strong Conclusion!(“In conclusion, this project, by closely examining xxxxx, sheds new light on the neglected/little recognized/rarely acknowledged issue of xxxxx.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Start by writing out your own version of the sentences above, succinctly if you can, but without stressing about your word limit too much.Once that is done, edit to your word count.One of the key points of the paper abstract is that it is very short, and every word must count.Remove wordy phrases like, “it can be argued that,” “Is is commonly acknowledged that,” “I wish to propose the argument that”—these are all empty filler.
If you are wondering—how do I make an argument when I haven’t written the paper yet?Well–that’s the challenge. Come up with a plausible, reasonable argument for the purposes of the abstract. If you end up writing something different in the actual paper itself, that’s ok! Make sure that your final product shows your: 1) big picture 3) your project filling the gap 4) the specific material that you examine in the paper.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ For your reference, here are two abstracts that demonstrate how the principles above work. Inclusion would have strengthened the abstract: 1. Access to marriage or marriage-like institutions, and the recognition of lesbian and gay familial lives more generally, has become central to lesbian and gay equality struggles in recent years Sentence 1–Big problem .Sentence 2–Gap in literature MISSING here .
This paper considers what utopian fiction has to offer by way of alternatives to this drive for ever more regulation of the family Sentence 3–Her project fills the gap .Through analysis of Marge Piercy’s classic feminist novel,Woman on the Edge of Time, and Thomas Bezucha’s award-winning gay film,Big Eden, alternative ways of conceptualizing the place of law in lesbian and gay familial lives are considered and explored Sentence 4–Her specific material in the paper .Looking to utopia as a method for rethinking the place of law in society offers rich new perspectives on the issue of lesbian and gay familial recognition Sentence 5–Her argument, weak .I argue that utopian fiction signals that the time is now ripe for a radical reevaluation of how we recognize and regulate not only same-sex relationships but all family forms Sentence 6– a strong conclusion.Imagining a Different World: Reconsidering the Regulation of Family Lives. History, it seems, has to attain a degree of scientificity, resident in the truth-value of its narrative, before it can be called history, as distinguished from the purely literary or political Sentence 1–Big problem .Invoking the work of Jacques Ranci re and Hayden White, this essay investigates the manner in which history becomes a science through a detour that gives speech a regime of truth Sentence 2–Literature, no gap mentioned .It does this by exploring the nineteenth-century relationship of history to poetry and to truth in the context of the emerging discipline of history in Bengal Sentence 3–Her project fills the gap .
The question is discussed in relation to a patriotic poem, Palashir Yuddha (1875), accused of ahistoricality, as well as to a defense made by Bengal’s first professional historian, Jadunath Sarkar, against a similar charge in the context of Bankimchandra Chatterjee’s historical novels Sentence 4–Her specific material in the paper .That the relationship of creativity to history is a continuing preoccupation for the historian is finally explored through Ranajit Guha’s invocation of Tagore in “History at the Limit of World-History” (2002) Sentence 5–Her argument, weakly stated .MISSING Sentence 6—a strongconclusion .History in Poetry: Nabinchandra Sen’s “Palashir Yuddha” and the Question of Truth.897-918) Good luck with your abstract!! And be sure and ask the Professor for help if you need it.About Karen I am a former tenured professor at two institutions–University of Oregon and University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.students, now gainfully employed in academia, and handled a number of successful tenure cases as Department Head.I’ve created this business, The Professor Is In, to guide graduate students and junior faculty through grad school, the job search, and tenure.I am the advisor they should already have, but probably don’t.WRITING A THESIS A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of a paper's content.It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance.
For a writer in the drafting stages, the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to include or exclude information.For the reader of a finished product, the thesis anticipates the author's discussion.A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and readers of academic material.This last sentence is our thesis for this section.Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows.
You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material.As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations.back to contents The Components of a Thesis Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject.In the sentence "Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals," "Lee and Grant" is the subject and "were different kinds of generals" is the predicate.What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the assertion.
The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the paper.The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation.(If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be.For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government.
Consider the subject of this sentence, "democracy," and the assertion of its predicate, "is the best system of government." The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length.The predicate of our example is also a problem, for the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised.A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of detail and sophistication expected of college students.back to contents Limiting the Scope of the Thesis Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it.
Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic).back to contents Begin with a Working Thesis Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers.But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience.Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper.
Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the format of their papers.
Experience counts - there's no way around it.As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind.Once you choose and devote time to a major field of study, however, you will gain experience.In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper.But let's assume that you do have an area of expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters).
We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs.Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry.The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written.Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research.Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to the contents of your paper.
After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of writing.Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to be made about it.Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper.If the match is a good one, the working thesis becomes the thesis statement.If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified.
(You'll know that the match between the content and thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to and develops some element of the thesis.) back to contents Begin with a Subject and Narrow It Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory).Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to think of thesis statements.It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs.He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper.
Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy.Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to select a broad area of interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features.What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture.The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason.(For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles.
For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for your professor.Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of departure.Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity.
Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS.
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At this point, the goal of your research is to limit this subject to a manageable scope.Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, "AIDS," we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of limiting).A subject can be limited in at least two ways English literature is written or read it has shaped culture, and there you will find us research methods in English 401; as a result, all Junior Independent Studies should 6. 3. Hannah LeGris used her Copeland Funds to travel to New York City to visit museum exhibitions on the history of the book. 4. Allison Hunter used .A subject can be limited in at least two ways.
First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting).
Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: Who? How? These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions Honors Senior Thesis Handbook University of Nevada Reno.Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: Who? How? These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions.Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject "AIDS" by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients Honors Senior Thesis Handbook University of Nevada Reno.Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject "AIDS" by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients.Certainly, "the civil rights of AIDS patients" offers a more specific focus than does "AIDS"; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to review numerous particular rights.So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question.In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time.
Six aspects may come to mind: Rights in the workplace Rights to education Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in its treatment.In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment.So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it.Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do.The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic.
The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories.Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them.In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate.So reading allowed you to narrow the subject "AIDS" by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects.
Once you narrowed your focus to "the civil rights of AIDS patients," you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited.
In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper.back to contents Make an Assertion Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about it.If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of your own thinking and the thinking of your sources.If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it.Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis.
A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic.In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper.Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of increasing complexity.During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists.Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.
The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones.Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements.Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested.After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity.The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you.
Notice how these three statements differ from one another in the forcefulness of their assertions.The third thesis is strongly argumentative."Most sensible" implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in favor of Anthony Jones.Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper.
Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come.The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory: During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists.In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken.Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the paper to follow.Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist.
The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion.The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion.We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights.Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever.
Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other.(Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the "most sensible.") As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex.It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading.The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations.
back to contents Different writing tasks require different thesis statements.The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e., "List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy").The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.
, "In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?").The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e., "Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy").
The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections.But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions.One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs.You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for your readers.
Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task.
As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis.To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion.Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to be developed within the length limitations of the assignment.Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write.Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the "fit" of your thesis with the paper that follows.
Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows.Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions.back to contents quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing.A summary, in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written.And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source.
Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase.How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions.It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation.You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely.When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted.
So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice.Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers.The trick is to know when and how to use quotations.back to contents Choosing Quotations Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper.Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective.
Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing.back to contents Quoting Memorable Language Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine.Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy.How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last.Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.
You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing.How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you.In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence."Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? .What emotions you evoke!" he said of her letters."Written in fire, they poor heart!" The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper.A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter.In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation: Franklin D.
Roosevelt said: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself.The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks (" "), must be faithful to the language of the original passage.When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning).
For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources, naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation or, in some disciplines, in a footnote .back to contents Quoting Clear and Concise Language You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy.Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter.This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold.Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10°C (50°F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7°C (45°F).
Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster.The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens.In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery.The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves.
A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by "clustering together in a dense ball" for body warmth.
A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter.The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.But when "clustering together in a dense ball," the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts.The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs.This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months.
In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's "clustering together in a dense ball," a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees.For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise.back to contents Quoting Authoritative Language You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work.When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company.Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable.
Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers.For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.It "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, "and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.
" By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion.Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers.The quotation has elevated the level of your work.You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper.Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut: A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective.Other space scientists dispute that idea.Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, "It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other.But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero." Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight.In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen.Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight.Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, Joseph Allen, The phrases in italics are called appositives.Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program James Van Allen, Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote.Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative.Now we will put these principles into practice.Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago: If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves.They want to be educational institutions, but they can't.
The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated.
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But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, "friends," presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards.These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves Need to purchase english literature thesis proposal Proofreading Ph.D. single spaced Standard.Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves.
Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as "faculty representatives" on the college athletic boards.
Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.You may want to quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.back to contents Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and fluid a manner as possible.Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that "a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins.
And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.back to contents A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards."These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." But this kind of thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes.
Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader.
Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end.Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." A variation: "These gentry," asserts Robert Hutchins, "often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit." Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above).
When attributing sources, try to vary the standard "states," "writes," "says," and so on.Other, stronger verbs you might consider: "asserts," "argues," "maintains," "insists," "asks," and even "wonders." back to contents Using Ellipsis Marks Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau.Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object.
Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.It "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, "and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.
" Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion.The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken.When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original.Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose.If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: "To read well .
is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem." If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: "It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written." If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis.Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau.
back to contents Using Brackets Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence.The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion.For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets.When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed.Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella.
This book's text is coy and condescending.(Sample: "And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!") The illustrations are poor cartoons.She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds.(Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.
) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings.She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice.She does not hear them because she is "off in a world of dreams." Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice! she refers to.
You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that " Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless." If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella "is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless." If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets.Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours.If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, "After the fire the officers did not return to the station house for three hours.
" You will also will need to add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly.Read the following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's "Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's": These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey.As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred.
In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life.
The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures.But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival.For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated.Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers.They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly.
Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing.Then the computers learned very quickly.One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years.If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words "the proposition" would be unclear.
Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, "The proposition that computers will emerge as a form of life seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures." Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism.See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on citing sources.back to contents WRITING INTRODUCTIONS A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen).Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write.
Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is a problem.What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively.Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction.
There's a lot to be said for this approach.Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis).And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over once or twice that a "natural" way of introducing it becomes apparent.Even if there is no natural way to begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to.Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way.
After all, you have to start writing somewhere, and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful.Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis.Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) "won't count" and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours.But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started.
The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay.The introduction makes the connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand.There are many ways to provide such a context.We'll consider just a few of the most common.back to contents In introduction to a paper on democracy: "Two cheers for democracy" was E.
Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment.To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization.White, democracy is "the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles .the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time" (915).American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers.
But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock, Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in our time: "The world of today .
is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's" (13).As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives.The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks.
Later in the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole.back to contents Historical Review In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background.Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues.In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of "immorality" from the screen.Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house.
In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code.At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth.Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal.Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it.At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable.
For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films.By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip.In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of sex or violence.Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system.The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system.
By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments.Notice the chronological development of details.back to contents Review of a Controversy A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate.Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: "the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance." However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
, in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is hardly clear cut.For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article "Civil Disobedience," holds that"to think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule." On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article "Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy," states that "civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government." These two views are clearly incompatible.
I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing.On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society.The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay.But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners.By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of her essay.
back to contents From General to the Specific Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to work from a general subject to a specific one.The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case.Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind.But what of the perfectly "normal" man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations.Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority.
Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt.William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children.back to contents Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft.Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions.Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate.
Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a "nuclear winter.
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" Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable.The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined.
It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war 12 Jul 2011 - Usually between 200 and 500 words long, it is a short abstract that describes research/a talk/a journal article that you are GOING to write. Learn the tricks of the paper abstract and you have the ticket in hand to a steady ride of conference and publishing opportunities. 6) a strong concluding sentence..
It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war.
The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat).The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar .The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention.For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar .For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject.back to contents Question Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence.According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, "As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work.
" Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and women.Are gender roles learned? back to contents Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing.The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them."We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine," say the authors of a cover story of the subject in Newsweek, "that will change forever the way an entire nation works," beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the industrial revolution was to the hand.Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters.
One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier.Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology.This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing.It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing.The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting.
The paragraph goes on to concede some of the "blessings" of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is "a certain danger" associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow.One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing.Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions.This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction.If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one.
You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs.(Our paragraph on the "nuclear winter," for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence "The results astounded them.") back to contents WRITING CONCLUSIONS One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to the world of your reader.A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis.Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented.
The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper.Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on.you might also want to urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior.Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are "thinking large" and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society.Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion.
First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper.Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight.It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work.Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction.
Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves.Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent.But keep a sense of proportion and timing.Make your points quickly and end crisply.back to contents Statement of the Subject's Significance One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort.
When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world.Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church.But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks.The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H.
Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn: .Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.
The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt.From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars per year.The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world.Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930.Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties.
And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids.Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed.From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world.The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn.The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world.
back to contents Call for Further Research In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored.If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted.This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes.Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement.What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes.
The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes.But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities.Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities.There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services.Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work.
The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation.back to contents Solution/Recommendation The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors.In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research.If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper.The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population.It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.
Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care.At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A &M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition.The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job.This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement.
The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost.But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution.With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work.In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one sentence: "The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards." In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that "educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens" be responsible for the welfare of college athletes.
In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal.He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal.back to contents Anecdote An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on your subject.The anecdote is more direct than an allusion.
With an allusion, you merely refer to a story ("Too many people today live in Plato's cave .
"); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story.The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity.The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide.
In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes.she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care.In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin, Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: "What is Fate?" Nasrudin was asked by a scholar."An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other." "Very well," said the Mulla, "look at that." He pointed to a procession passing in the street.Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?" The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote.
She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader.The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret.Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible.back to contents Quotation A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility.The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis.
But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you.Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic.If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper.There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers.More and more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - "friendly," in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science.
And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered.One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds.If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers."For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive," says SRl's Peter Schwartz.In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished.
But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced." In any event, there is no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing.Notice how the quotation is used to position the writer to make one final remark.Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example.Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself.
For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers.In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits "almost identical to the diet of around 1900," says Maureen Henderson."It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now.It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people." Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking.
Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in."We're not here to convince the public to take anything," she says.What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.
'' There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can.The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief.If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising.The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong.
back to contents Question Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for closing them.
The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows.But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and political business of the second stage.Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response.This tactic also places the reader in an active role.
The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled "Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'?" So the answer to the question "Would an intelligent computer have the right to life?" is probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence.Speculation When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen.This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the unknown.The following paragraph concludes "The New Generation Gap" by Neil Howe and William Strauss.In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the "Gl Generation" (born between 1901 and 1924), the "Boomers" (born 1943- 1961), the "Thirteeners" (born 1961-1981), and the "Millennials" (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age.
Study after story after column will laud these "best damn kids in the world" as heralding a resurgent American greatness.And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap.